Table of contents:
- Analysis methods for echinococcus
- When is the examination
- Laboratory diagnostic methods
- Factors affecting the analysis result
- How to prepare for a blood draw
- Decoding a blood test for echinococcus
Analysis methods for echinococcus
Echinococcus is a tapeworm parasitizing in the intestines of many animals, which, once it enters the human body, begins to exert a pathological effect on all organs and tissues. Thus, the parasite causes irreparable damage to human health. At the slightest suspicion of infection, it is necessary to pass an analysis for echinococcus. Today, there are many methods that allow, in the shortest possible time and with great reliability, to carry out high-quality diagnostics in order to determine the probability and degree of infection.
Echinococcus is a tapeworm parasitizing in the intestines of many animals, which, once it enters the human body, begins to exert a pathological effect on all organs and tissues.
When is the examination
Human infection with echinococcus occurs through contact with carriers of parasites - dogs, less often cats.
Infectionists recommend that people whose life is connected with animals (dog handlers, veterinarians, shepherds) should be especially strict about their health.
For prophylactic purposes, analysis for helminths should be carried out by farmers raising cattle or other farm animals.
Echinococcal infection has no specific symptoms.
A survey for infection is carried out when signs of human infection with a dangerous worm appear, which include a sharp deterioration in well-being.
Liver damage occurs when a person is infected with echinococcus.
In case of an allergy of an undetermined cause, an examination for infection with echinococcus is prescribed.
Examination for infection is carried out when signs of human infection with a dangerous worm appear, which include:
- a sharp deterioration in well-being and health;
- liver damage;
- lung tumor;
- damage to other organs and tissues;
- allergy of uncertain cause.
Symptoms of the presence of echinococci in the body can be: weakness, chronic fatigue, temporary fever, frequent headaches, skin rashes. Similar symptoms indicate damage to internal organs - the liver or lungs.
Often, echinococcus is the causative agent of diseases of the brain, heart, and less often the eyes.
Laboratory diagnostic methods
If you suspect the presence of echinococcus in the body, the infectious disease doctor prescribes a number of laboratory tests, including:
- general examination of urine, feces;
- biochemical blood test;
- serological blood test by the methods of RNIF (indirect immunofluorescence), ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and RNGA (indirect hemolytic agglutination reaction), which allow to determine antibodies to echinococcus;
- hardware diagnostics (ultrasound, CT, etc.)
A biochemical blood test is prescribed when a person is infected with echinococcus.
A general urine test is performed if an echinococcus is suspected.
If you suspect the presence of echinococcus in the body, the infectious disease doctor prescribes a number of laboratory tests, including ultrasound.
To make an accurate diagnosis and determine the stage of infection, it is necessary to use all diagnostic methods.
Linked immunosorbent assay
An enzyme immunoassay is performed when echinococcosis is suspected - infection of the human body with parasitic worms that affects the liver or lungs. When a person is infected with echinococcus, the body's immune response in the form of the production of IgM and IgG antibodies to the parasite can be observed only 1-2 months after the invasion. Such an analysis has a high sensitivity (about 98%) and allows you to identify the risk and degree of infection.
An enzyme immunoassay is performed when echinococcosis is suspected - infection of the human body with parasitic worms that affects the liver or lungs.
General blood analysis
General blood biochemistry allows you to identify abnormal liver function tests. With an increased number of peripheral blood leukocytes, a condition is diagnosed in which parasites have already entered the body. The rate of eosinophils in the blood is 1-5%.
The high erythrocyte sedimentation rate also indicates inflammatory processes and the presence of infection. If the normal values are exceeded, the ESR diagnoses pathological reactions in the body.
An ultrasound examination of the abdominal organs helps detect an increase in their size.
In the presence of a cyst in the liver, ultrasound is the most informative diagnostic method, since it helps to determine the size and localization of the formations.
When using contrast agents, computed tomography becomes more informative than other diagnostic methods, and will detect cysts up to 1 cm in diameter.
The only drawback of a tomographic examination is its price.
Allergic test Cazzoni refers to the immunological method of research. Using the Cozzoni test, you can determine if antigen proteins are present in the blood.
If the patient has echinococcosis at the site of the scratch, an inflammatory reaction will appear in the form of redness or swelling.
Factors affecting the analysis result
Studies to determine echinococcus are carried out several times, since the test results may be distorted by the presence of other diseases. The development of cirrhosis of the liver and tuberculosis can lead to an erroneous diagnosis. Progressive cancers can also give a false result.
Several times, general blood biochemistry and serological tests are carried out to determine echinococcus, since these diagnostic methods do not always give a reliable examination result.
How to prepare for a blood draw
Doctors note that no special preparation for donating blood for the determination of the parasite is required. Blood can be donated at any time of the day.
The only condition for obtaining more accurate data is quitting smoking and alcohol on the eve of sampling.
The only condition for obtaining more accurate data is quitting smoking and alcohol on the eve of sampling. It is also not advisable to take potent drugs. It is necessary to warn the doctor and laboratory assistant about taking any medications.
Decoding a blood test for echinococcus
A blood test for echinococcus is informative, but does not always show an accurate picture of the pathology. So, the result of the analysis can be positive, negative and false positive. If the antibody titers are greater than 1: 100, then the response is assessed as positive. This test result indicates echinococcosis of the liver or lungs.
Sometimes, with rupture of cysts or their small volume, the test results may not show the development of pathology. With multichamber echinococcus, the results of an enzyme immunoassay may be normal. A false negative response may occur when the disease progresses to the last stage, when cysts formed by parasites become inoperable.
If the result of a blood test for echinococcus is doubtful, it is necessary to re-take the test.
The very diagnosis of human infection with echinococcus requires an integrated approach and the participation of many specialists. Symptoms of the disease should not be ignored.