Table of contents:
- Symptoms and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis
- Forms of the disease
- Causes of pathology
- Symptoms of congenital toxoplasmosis
- Diagnosis of the disease
- Treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis
Video: Symptoms And Treatment Of Congenital Toxoplasmosis
Symptoms and treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis
Congenital toxoplasmosis is a dangerous disease that can lead to disability and death. It belongs to the category of parasitic pathologies transmitted in utero, is characterized by severe symptoms and requires compulsory drug treatment, which must be started immediately after confirming the diagnosis.
Congenital toxoplasmosis belongs to the category of parasitic pathologies transmitted in utero.
Forms of the disease
There are several forms of pathology.
If infection with toxoplasmosis occurs in the 1st or 2nd trimester of pregnancy, the child develops a chronic form of the disease. The risk of fetal infection at this time is approximately 13-18%.
The subacute form of the disease is diagnosed when the infection has entered the child's body at a later stage of intrauterine development. The risk of infection is about 80%.
The subacute form of the disease is diagnosed when the infection has entered the child's body at a later stage of intrauterine development.
Acute form of the disease
If a fetus contracted an infection just before delivery, it develops acute toxoplasmosis.
Causes of pathology
The development of congenital toxoplasmosis occurs only with intrauterine infection of a child, when during pregnancy a woman first encounters the causative agent of the disease - the parasitic microorganisms Toxoplasma gondii. Infectious agents are transmitted by the fecal-oral route. Most often, they enter the body of a pregnant woman through contact with cats, which are the main carriers of this type of parasites, and the use of thermally unprocessed foods.
Parasitic microorganisms most often they enter the body of a pregnant woman through contact with cats.
Symptoms of congenital toxoplasmosis
The symptomatology of toxoplasmosis in newborns is very diverse and depends on at what point in intrauterine development the infection occurred. So, in the acute form of the disease that develops before birth, the child has an increase in body temperature, papular rash on the skin, jaundice, enlargement of the liver and spleen. When infected in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy, the disease manifests itself with signs of meningitis and encephalitis, convulsions, paralysis, and epileptic seizures.
For the chronic form of toxoplasmosis in children, post-encephalitic symptoms are characteristic, expressed by convulsive syndrome, cerebral atrophy, hydrocephalus, and visual lesions.
In the acute form of the disease that develops before birth, the child has an increase in body temperature.
Also, with toxoplasmosis, an increase in the liver and spleen is observed.
For the chronic form of toxoplasmosis in children, a post-encephalitic symptom is characteristic - atrophy of the brain.
Congenital toxoplasmosis in newborns has no specific symptoms and is often disguised as other diseases. With intrauterine infection with toxoplasma infection, children may experience:
- hearing loss, deafness;
- inflammation of the lymph nodes;
- disturbances in the work of the digestive system;
- the formation of calcifications in the brain;
- respiratory diseases (pneumonia);
- increased intracranial pressure;
- poor weight gain, developmental delay;
The latent course of toxoplasmosis in a newborn child or the lack of timely treatment leads to severe complications in about 90% of cases. Most often, the consequences of the transferred disease relate to the work of the central nervous system, organs of hearing and vision. Children have such complications of toxoplasmosis as retinal inflammation, cataracts, complete deafness and blindness, chronic encephalitis, epilepsy, oligophrenia, Down syndrome, schizophrenia.
In preschool and school age, a child who has suffered congenital toxoplasmosis may experience: severe mental and physical retardation.
In preschool and school age, a child who has suffered congenital toxoplasmosis may experience: a strong delay in mental and physical development, a violation of the teething process, heart disease, blood vessels, and the endocrine system. Thus, parasitic pathology can negatively affect almost any area of the child's body.
Diagnosis of the disease
It is possible to diagnose toxoplasmosis in a child during the period of his intrauterine development. For this, invasive procedures are used, as a result of which a biomaterial (part of the chorion, amniotic fluid or umbilical cord blood) is obtained, which is examined for the presence of toxoplasma using PCR. This analysis is mandatory if acute toxoplasmosis is found in a pregnant woman, and developmental disorders are detected in the fetus during an ultrasound scan.
In the postnatal period, an enzyme immunoassay or a study performed by the PCR method allows to determine the infection in the body of the newborn. A comprehensive examination of the child is carried out if the patient is at risk of intrauterine toxoplasmosis infection.
It is possible to diagnose toxoplasmosis in a child even during the period of his intrauterine development.
Such diagnostics include a general and biochemical blood test, a computed tomogram of the brain, neurosonography, an X-ray of the lungs, ophthalmoscopy and spinal puncture, ultrasound of internal organs, and also requires examination by narrow specialists - an ophthalmologist, neurologist, cardiologist, psychiatrist. All these studies allow timely identification of symptoms of congenital toxoplasmosis and treatment of concomitant diseases at an early stage.
Treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis
With toxoplasmosis in newborns, first of all, etiotropic treatment is prescribed, which fights against the cause of the disease - toxoplasma. In the therapy of parasitic pathology, drugs such as Pyrimethamine, Sulfadimezin, Spiramycin are used. Some people need to take glucocorticosteroids (Prednisolone).
If the disease is accompanied by pronounced symptoms, treatment is carried out only in a hospital setting. Therapy is prescribed immediately after the clinical diagnosis is made to prevent the development of severe complications. At the same time, treatment of concomitant pathologies is carried out, which is selected individually by narrow specialists.
If the disease is accompanied by pronounced symptoms, treatment is carried out only in a hospital setting.
If necessary, after discharge from the hospital, it is allowed to continue therapy on an outpatient basis. During this period, the observation of a pediatrician, infectious disease specialist and other doctors is a mandatory measure to prevent late complications.
To protect the unborn child from intrauterine infection with toxoplasmosis, a woman needs to take appropriate tests both at the stage of pregnancy planning and after conception. If the expectant mother is infected with Toxoplasma, she needs to start treatment immediately.
In addition, during pregnancy, a woman should strictly adhere to non-specific preventive measures - regularly wash her hands with soap, eat only thermally processed foods and thoroughly clean raw vegetables and fruits from contamination. It is also important to limit contact with pets during the entire period of carrying a child.