Borovsky's Disease (cutaneous Leishmaniasis): Symptoms And Treatment

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Borovsky's Disease (cutaneous Leishmaniasis): Symptoms And Treatment
Borovsky's Disease (cutaneous Leishmaniasis): Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Borovsky's Disease (cutaneous Leishmaniasis): Symptoms And Treatment

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Video: Parasitic Diseases Lectures #6: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis 2023, February
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Borovsky's disease (cutaneous leishmaniasis): symptoms and treatment

Cutaneous leishmaniasis, also called Borovsky's disease, is an endemic parasitic infection common in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. The disease is accompanied by deep damage to the epidermal tissue, in the absence of timely treatment, leading to complications. Leishmaniasis can easily be confused with some other skin infections, so it is important to be able to recognize the symptoms of parasitic infestation.

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Cutaneous leishmaniasis (Borovsky disease) is an endemic parasitic infection common in countries with tropical and subtropical climates.

Causative agent

The causative agent of leishmaniasis is cutaneous leishmania (Leishmania tropica), a microscopic parasite that lives in the body of mammals. It enters the human body through the bites of mosquitoes from the genus Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia, which become carriers of the infection, feeding on the blood of infected animals (most often rodents and dogs).

Leishmania tropica minor causes an anthroponous (urban) form of leishmaniasis, Leishmania tropica major causes a zoonotic (rural) form.

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The parasite enters the human body through the bites of mosquitoes from the genus Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia.

Symptoms of cutaneous leishmaniasis

The symptomatology of the pathology differs depending on the type.

Rural (zoonotic) type

The rural type of leishmaniasis is characterized by an acute course. Young children and people suffering from immunodeficiency conditions are most affected by the disease.

The incubation period of the disease is from 7 days to 1.5 months. At the end of this stage, the development of leishmanioma is observed on the skin at the site of the bite of an infected insect.

Initially, it looks like a small conical formation with a wide base. It has a reddish-bluish tint. The papule gradually increases, then turns into a slightly painful furuncle, which after 7-14 days develops into a necrotic focus, rapidly abscessing and forming a crater-like round ulcer with ragged edges.

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The incubation period of the disease is from 7 days to 1.5 months.

From erosion, bloody and purulent contents are released. Ulceration can be single or accompanied by the appearance of secondary purulent foci, prone to fusion. Ulcers heal within 2-6 months and leave deep scars.

If the local inflammatory process is complicated by a purulent infection spreading throughout the body, this causes damage to internal organs and deep necrotic changes in epidermal tissues and cartilage. The patient may develop erysipelas, phlegmon, extensive furunculosis, defects in the mucous membranes of the oral cavity.

Cutaneous zoonotic leishmaniasis is often accompanied by fever
Cutaneous zoonotic leishmaniasis is often accompanied by fever

Cutaneous zoonotic leishmaniasis is often accompanied by fever.

Also, zoonotic leishmaniasis gives complications to the lymph nodes
Also, zoonotic leishmaniasis gives complications to the lymph nodes

Also, zoonotic leishmaniasis gives complications to the lymph nodes.

If the local inflammatory process is complicated by a purulent infection that spreads throughout the body, this causes damage to internal organs
If the local inflammatory process is complicated by a purulent infection that spreads throughout the body, this causes damage to internal organs

If the local inflammatory process is complicated by a purulent infection spreading throughout the body, this causes damage to the internal organs.

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In severe cases, leishmania pathologies penetrate the bloodstream and can provoke the onset of a more dangerous form of the disease - visceral leishmaniasis.

Urban anthroponous type

Anthroponous leishmaniasis is characterized by a longer incubation period compared to the zoonotic form of the disease. The first symptoms of infection may appear only 5-8 months after being bitten by a mosquito-carrier of the disease. In some infected individuals, the characteristic signs of infestation after contact with an insect appear only after 1-2 years.

This type of leishmaniasis is not as acute as rural. With the anthroponous form of the disease, leishmaniomas are also formed, but they are small in size and do not turn into ulcers for a long time. At the same time, it may take up to 1 year for the complete healing of erosion.

Diagnosis of the disease

To establish an accurate diagnosis and identify parasites in the human body, laboratory diagnostics are performed. The following studies are prescribed:

  • general and biochemical blood tests;
  • blood microscopy (examination of a thick drop);
  • microscopic examination of the contents of the ulcer;
  • skin test with leishmanin.

Some patients are referred for a biopsy of the lymph nodes, spleen, liver cells, which allows detecting the causative agent of infection in the internal organs.

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The diagnostic process consists in conducting a general and biochemical blood test.

Treatment

In the treatment, both medications and other methods are used.

Medicines

Leishmanias are resistant to most antibacterial drugs, therefore, it will be possible to eliminate the parasite that causes cutaneous leishmaniasis only with the help of pentavalent antimony preparations (Solusurmina, Glucantima, Neostibozan). In the early stages of the development of the disease, Urotropin or Monomycin is injected into the area of ​​leishmanioma formation. Monomycin ointment can be used to treat ulcers to speed up the healing process.

In the therapy of parasitic infection, antimalarial drugs (Delagil, Plaquenil) and antibiotics (Doxycycline, Amphotericin) are also used. The use of these funds is advisable if the parasite has developed resistance to previously used drugs.

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In the early stages of the development of the disease, Urotropin or Monomycin is injected into the area of ​​leishmanioma formation.

Phytotherapy

Along with medications for cutaneous leishmaniasis, folk recipes are used. They significantly facilitate the course of the disease.

The following recipes help with leishmaniasis:

  1. Every day, 2 times a day, take 30 drops of an alcoholic tincture of Eleutherococcus, ginseng or Chinese magnolia vine. These funds have a tonic effect and strengthen the immune system.
  2. Compresses from willow bark will speed up the healing of erosion. 50 g of bark, pour 1 liter of boiling water and cook over low heat for 20 minutes. Strain the liquid and use for compresses. A cloth soaked in broth should be applied to the affected skin at night.
  3. Calendula ointment can be used to relieve inflammation and reduce the size of ulcers. To prepare it, you need to take 1 tbsp. l. calendula flowers, crushed into powder, and 30 g of petroleum jelly. Mix the ingredients until smooth and lubricate the erosion 3 times a day.
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Calendula ointment can be used to relieve inflammation and reduce the size of ulcers.

Before using any of the above means, you must consult a specialist.

Prevention of cutaneous leishmaniasis

It is important to use insect repellents and other mosquito repellents to prevent leishmaniasis. Since most often insects attack a person at night, it is recommended to sleep under a mesh canopy treated with insecticides or strongly smelling substances (clove oil, turpentine).

Public prevention of the disease is aimed at draining swamps near settlements and conducting mosquito pest control.

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Specific prophylaxis is based on the administration of an inoculation containing a weakened culture of zoonotic leishmaniasis.

Specific prophylaxis is based on the administration of an inoculation containing a weakened culture of zoonotic leishmaniasis. After using the vaccine, a person in a mild form suffers the disease and receives stable immunity not only to rural, but also to anthroponous form of infection.

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