Table of contents:
- How to get tested for intestinal protozoses
- Indications for
- Laboratory and instrumental diagnostics methods
- Reproduction of DNA material in vitro
- How does infection occur
Video: How To Get Tested For Intestinal Protozoses
How to get tested for intestinal protozoses
Due to the rapidly increasing incidence of parasitic pathologies in the population, laboratory tests for protozoses, diseases caused by simple pathogenic microorganisms, are becoming more and more in demand. Many of them cause intestinal disorders, inflammation in various internal organs and can be life-threatening.
Many of the parasitic pathologies cause intestinal disorders, inflammation in various internal organs and can be life threatening.
Although the manifestations of each protozoal pathology have individual symptoms, there are general symptoms that are regarded by the doctor as a basis for suspicion of the presence of parasitic diseases. It:
- repeated diarrhea, often with mucus, blood;
- dehydration of the body;
- aching or sharp pain in the abdomen;
- nausea, which can lead to vomiting;
- yellowing of the sclera of the eyes, skin;
- discharge, sometimes mixed with pus;
- losing weight;
- feverish condition.
A symptom of parasite disease is repeated diarrhea, often with mucus, blood.
Nausea, which can lead to vomiting, is one of the symptoms of parasites in the body.
Also, a symptom of parasite infestation is a febrile condition.
When infected with parasites, a person can lose weight.
In addition, these symptoms can be joined by signs that indicate that the human body is actively responding to intoxication with parasites:
- temperature rise;
- headache, heart, muscle, joint pain;
- violation of coordination of movements;
- persistent cough;
- absent-mindedness, loss of concentration of attention up to clouding of consciousness.
In a severe course of the disease, abscesses, sepsis, internal bleeding, blood clots may occur. This condition often leads to irreversible pathological changes and threatens the patient with death. If you find the listed symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor who will determine what tests for intestinal protozoses should be performed.
A cough is a sign that the human body is actively responding to parasite intoxication.
Laboratory and instrumental diagnostics methods
Detection of protozoal diseases using diagnostic devices is rarely practiced, with the exception of toxoplasmosis, when it is necessary to obtain data from a radiological study of brain lesions. With pneumocystosis, some types of amebiasis, instrumental methods are first used, and then laboratory tests are prescribed. In visceral leishmaniasis, abdominal ultrasound often helps to establish the stage of the disease, the degree of pathological enlargement of the spleen, and assess the prognosis of the disease.
Abnormal test results give the doctor reason to suspect a protozoal pathology. But for the final diagnosis, it is necessary to conduct general laboratory tests and especially parasitological research, which is the most informative and important.
In visceral leishmaniasis, abdominal ultrasound often helps to establish the stage of the disease, the degree of pathological enlargement of the spleen, and assess the prognosis of the disease.
The following methods are used to identify the simplest microorganisms that cause intestinal protozoses:
- Direct - with direct study of samples of biological materials that correspond to the current pathology (feces, urine, blood, exudate from ulcers).
- Indirect - immunological studies of blood serum. Such blood tests make it possible to detect pathogens by antibodies to their antigens. Serological methods are highly accurate and are most preferred for widespread use.
Immunological studies are carried out to identify lamblia, in the diagnosis of amebiasis, malaria. When laboratory data alone is not enough, the doctor prescribes an additional examination for the patient, for example, fluoroscopy (if cysticercosis, echinococcosis is suspected), computed tomography.
For the final diagnosis, it is necessary to carry out general laboratory tests and especially parasitological research, which is the most informative and important.
General blood analysis
Often, the pathologies caused by intestinal parasites are characterized by minor, but chronic bleeding. This can be judged by a decrease in the number of erythrocytes and a drop in hemoglobin levels. For most of these diseases, an increase in ESR is typical. A general blood test provides a basis for a preliminary diagnosis of parasitic infection of the body.
The results of the coprogram are especially important in the detection of intestinal diseases such as amebiasis, giardiasis, balantidiasis, sarcocystosis. The color, consistency, odor of feces allow you to pre-establish the localization and nature of the lesion of the digestive system by parasites.
So, the presence of bleeding from the sigmoid or rectum can be judged by the inclusions of fresh blood in the feces. When bleeding from the upper intestines, they turn black and have a fetid odor. For maximum reliability, feces are examined three times every 1.5-2 weeks.
The color, consistency, odor of feces allow you to pre-establish the localization and nature of the lesion of the digestive system by parasites.
Linked immunosorbent assay
If intestinal protozoses are suspected, a method is used to detect IgM and IgG antibodies in the patient's venous blood. By the presence and quantity of these immunoglobulins, one can judge whether there is or is not an invasion. For example, an IgM + result indicates an acute form of the disease. The same conclusion is confirmed by a titer of 1/600 and higher values. The IgG + indicator reveals the chronic stage of the pathology.
Titers from 1/200 to 1/400 indicate that the patient has already suffered from the disease and has developed immunity. The numbers 1/100 mean that the person has never faced invasions. ELISA is widely used to detect intestinal protozoa. But the differential diagnosis of such a dangerous parasite as, for example, tapeworm (tapeworm), it is more expedient to carry out the method of the complement fixation reaction.
If intestinal protozoses are suspected, a method is used to detect IgM and IgG antibodies in the patient's venous blood.
Indirect immunofluorescence response
The NRIF test is a study of blood or scrapings from the urethra, which are treated with fluorescent dyes. If the samples contain unicellular microorganisms, they combine with the staining substance and glow. This diagnostic method does not guarantee accurate results, therefore, it is practiced in conjunction with other tests.
Complement binding reaction
The principle of research by the RSC method is based on the absorption of complement - the blood serum of the guinea pig. If the body's antibodies and parasite antigens correspond to each other, i.e. an immune complex is formed, the complement binds to it, and the erythrocytes are not destroyed. If the antibodies do not match the antigens, the complement remains free and causes the death of red blood cells.
Polymerase chain reaction
PCR is characterized by increased sensitivity, because this method is particularly accurate. Any biomaterial of the patient can be examined: blood, urine, sputum, scrapings from mucous membranes. With the help of enzymes, the volume of samples taken is increased and at the same time pathogens, which are easier to see through a microscope and count.
Reproduction of DNA material in vitro
This effective method is based on the latest gene technologies. The use of DNA polymerase (an enzyme that multiplies microorganisms) allows you to increase the amount of the studied biomaterial so that even single specimens of the causative agents of many protozoal diseases are easily detected. It:
- trypanosomiasis, etc.
The use of DNA polymerase makes it possible to increase the amount of the studied biomaterial so much that even single specimens of the causative agent of the disease are easily detected.
How does infection occur
Ways of infection with protozoa:
- Alimentary - through contaminated food, water.
- Sexual - from a sick partner.
- Contact - through domestic animals, due to insect bites (flies, mosquitoes, lice), carriers of protozoses.
To obtain the most objective data, it is necessary to apply several different diagnostic methods.