Table of contents:
- What antiprotozoal drugs are effective against protozoa?
- What does antiprotozoal mean?
- Indications for use
- Classification of drugs
- What other drugs are used as antiprotozoal
What antiprotozoal drugs are effective against protozoa?
Antiprotozoal agents are used to treat diseases caused by protozoa. These drugs are toxic and have a number of side effects, so they should be taken only as directed by the attending physician and after identifying the infectious agent.
Antiprotozoal agents are used to treat diseases caused by protozoa.
What does antiprotozoal mean?
Antiprotozoal drugs are aimed at destroying the simplest microorganisms such as amoeba, giardia, Trichomonas, toxoplasma, leishmania, malaria plasmodia, pneumocysts, trypanosomes.
The antiprotozoal effect is based on slowing down the synthesis of nucleic acids and destroying the cytoplasmic membrane in protozoan cells. This leads to disruption of the life cycle and death of parasites. The active components of antiprotozoal agents are antibiotics and herbal ingredients.
Indications for use
Specialists prescribe drugs in this group for the following diseases:
- vaginitis, urethritis, colpitis;
- abscesses in the lungs, liver, brain;
- amoebic dysentery (amebiasis);
- giardiasis intestinal and extraintestinal.
Specialists prescribe drugs in this group for abscesses in the lungs.
Specialists prescribe antiprotozoal agents for malaria.
Specialists prescribe drugs in this group for the following diseases: vaginitis, urethritis, colpitis.
The cells of the simplest microorganisms and humans are similar, so the destruction of this type of parasite is a difficult process. The doctor calculates the scheme and duration of admission separately for each patient, based on his age, weight, severity of the disease and concomitant pathologies. Treatment with certain antiprotozoal drugs must be carried out in a hospital setting.
Classification of drugs
Antiprotozoal drugs are classified depending on the causative agent of the parasitic infection on which they affect:
- from giardiasis;
- from toxoplasmosis;
- from trichomoniasis;
- against leishmaniasis.
Also, drugs are divided into subgroups depending on the location and on the form of development of parasites against which they are effective.
Anti-amebic agents are used in the treatment of amebiasis (amoebic dysentery). These microorganisms parasitize the large intestine and cause fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. In rare cases, amoeba infection can lead to abscesses in the liver, brain, and lungs.
Preparations against parasites inhabiting:
- intestinal lumen - Hinifon, Mexaform, Enteroseptol;
- colon walls - antibiotics of the tetracycline group;
- liver - Hingamin, Tinidazole, Chloroquine.
Hingamin, Tinidazole, Chloroquine are prescribed against parasites that colonize the liver.
Derivatives of nitroimidazole (Metronidazole, Ornidazole) are active against amoebas, regardless of where they are parasitized.
The disease can be treated with such agents as Metronidazole, Ornidazole, Furazolidone, Akrikhin. The latter drug is also effective against the causative agents of malaria, lupus erythematosus and influenza. Antiprotozoal drugs must be combined with sorbents and antihistamines.
Preference is given to the drugs Tiberal, Dazolik, Gayro, Macmiror, since their effectiveness in giardiasis exceeds 90%.
For toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis
Toxoplasma infection occurs through contact with a sick cat or raw meat. Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy threatens with congenital fetal anomalies. For treatment, a combination of Chloridine and Sulfadimezin is used.
At the site of localization of the causative agent, leishmaniasis is cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral and diffuse. In the visceral type, the parasite circulates in the bloodstream, affecting the internal organs. If the disease is difficult, they resort to injections of pentavalent antimony preparations.
At the site of localization of the causative agent, leishmaniasis is cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral and diffuse.
For skin lesions, Metronidazole and Paramocin in tablets and Pentamidine in injections are prescribed.
Trichomonas affects the genitourinary system and causes urethritis, vaginitis, colpitis. Pathogens are sexually transmitted, so both partners are subject to treatment. Infection with Trichomonas is manifested by itching during urination, swelling of the external genital organs, and in women - by abundant foamy discharge of a yellow-green color.
Effective agents in the treatment of gynecological and urological diseases caused by Trichomonas are Metronidazole, Tinidazole, Ornidazole, Polycresulen. The drugs are available in the form of tablets and vaginal suppositories.
Metronidazole is an effective agent in the treatment of gynecological and urological diseases caused by Trichomonas.
Malaria drugs are categorized as follows:
- histochizotropic (effective against asexual tissue forms) - Chloridine, Primaquine, Bigumal, Chinocid;
- hematoschizotropic (acting against erythrocytic forms of plasmodia) - Halokhin, Cyclokhin, Plaquenil, Chloridin;
- gamontotropic drugs (destructive for the genital forms of plasmodia) - Primaquine, Chloridine.
In the treatment of malaria, Hingamin is actively used, which is effective against all forms of pathogens and at any stage of the disease. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-amebic effects. Increased efficiency in the treatment of the disease can be achieved by combining Hingamin with sulfonamides.
What other drugs are used as antiprotozoal
Some antiprotozoal drugs also have antibacterial effects.
Metronidazole is active against such anaerobic microorganisms as streptococci, peptococci, clostridia, fusobacteria, bacteroids, etc. Due to its broad spectrum of action, the drug is used in the treatment of Trichomonas vaginitis, urethritis, amoebic dysentery. Antimicrobial and antiprotozoal drugs are Ornidazole, Metrogyl, Flagil, Efloran.
Some antiprotozoal drugs also have antibacterial effects.
The drug Delagil, the active substance of which is chloroquine phosphate, is prescribed for amebiasis, malaria, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus of infectious origin.
The drug McMiror is used to treat protozoal and intestinal bacterial infections caused by Salmonella, Shigella, etc. It has a detrimental effect on the bacteria Helicobacter Pylori and yeast that cause candidiasis.
The antibiotic Paromomycin is active against amoebas, lamblia, salmonella, shigella, gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.