Table of contents:
- general characteristics
- External signs
- Protozoa cause infection
- Diagnostics and differentiation
- Correct treatment
- Preventive actions
Video: Dysentery: Symptoms, Signs, And Treatment In Adults
Treatment for dysentery in adults takes a long time. It is necessary not only to cope with the focus of inflammation, but also to restore the disturbed functions of the gastrointestinal tract. The symptoms of the disease begin to quickly gain momentum and worsen the patient's condition every day.
- 1 General characteristics
- 2 External signs
- 3 Protozoa cause infection
- 4 Diagnosis and differentiation
- 5 Correct treatment
- 6 Preventive measures
Dysentery (shigellosis) is caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella, which infect the mucous surface of the large intestine. In the course of their vital activity, they release toxins that negatively affect all internal organs of a person. The nervous system, kidneys, liver and the entire intestine are most affected. Diagnosis code according to the international classification of diseases (ICD 10) A03.
Acute dysentery is often diagnosed for the first time, manifested by a sharp deterioration in the condition, bright signs. Allocate a gastroenteric form of the course of the acute form of the disease, when the stomach and small intestine are affected. With the gastroenterocolitic form, all internal organs are affected. Colitis affects only the large intestine.
How can you get dysentery? The source of infection is an infected person. There are several ways of contracting dysentery:
- often there is infection with dysentery by contact and everyday life (unwashed hands, dirty linen, food). In this way, Grigoriev-Shiga dysentery is transmitted;
- Shigella Flexner species is most often transmitted by water. The cause of dysentery can be swimming in open reservoirs, drinking unboiled tap water or well water;
- the food route is open to the Shigella Sonne. The causes of dysentery may be associated with the consumption of foods that have expired, poorly washed fruits, vegetables, berries or herbs.
The main way of transmission of dysentery is the consumption of dairy products that have not been properly examined, swimming in prohibited water bodies, eating fruits and vegetables from the ground.
Shigella are quite resistant to adverse environmental conditions. They can continue to live outside the human body for up to several weeks in water, soil, cold. They die under the influence of disinfectants, sunlight and when heated to 60 degrees.
The following stages of dysentery can be distinguished: the incubation period, the peak of the disease, the stage of decreasing the intensity of symptoms and full recovery.
The initial stage of the disease is associated with the incubation period, which can last from several hours to 7 days. It all depends on how many bacteria have entered the body.
The peak of the disease is associated with acute manifestations, worsening of the condition. Flexner's dysentery is the worst. Recovery occurs by the end of the second week, but subject to proper treatment. Full recovery of the body can take up to 2 months. Even after the condition improves, the person remains the carrier of the infection.
The main symptoms of dysentery are as follows:
- the rise in body temperature to high levels (above 39 degrees), there is a fever in the body, chills;
- a person complains of weakness, weakness;
- pain in the head, left abdomen joins;
- in most cases, blood pressure decreases;
- heart rhythm is disturbed.
The first signs of dysentery are as follows:
- in an adult patient there is a frequent urge to defecate, which is accompanied by severe abdominal pain;
- during the disease, dry mouth is felt;
- the presence of bouts of false urge to defecate;
- lack of appetite;
- nausea, up to vomiting.
The nature of the stool in dysentery changes, depending on the stage of the disease. The feces liquefy as the acute period approaches. The color of the stool is greenish, interspersed with blood and mucus. The frequency of loose stools reaches 17 times per day.
Dysentery during pregnancy leads to serious complications. Pathology is dangerous for both the woman and the fetus. The risk of premature birth or miscarriage increases due to an increased reduction in uterine tone. The woman has an increase in temperature, worries about severe weakness, constantly nausea, there is repeated vomiting.
What ways does the infection pass to the child? The baby can become infected during childbirth, there is a high risk of intrauterine infection of the fetus, therefore, treatment is carried out only within the walls of the hospital using sparing drugs.
Protozoa cause infection
Amebic dysentery is always caused by the simplest unicellular bacteria - amoebas. How is amebiasis transmitted? The main source of infection is a sick person. How else can the infection be transmitted? You can also catch it through unwashed vegetables, fruits or dirty water. Flies and cockroaches can carry the disease.
Ulcerative foci develop in the walls of the large intestine. Then, from the intestine, the amoeba enters the blood vessels and affects the neighboring internal organs.
To recognize the disease in time, you need to know what symptoms characterize it. The incubation period for dysentery disease can range from one week to three months. The disease develops gradually, accompanied by weakness, decreased performance, pain in the head and left abdomen.
Then the symptoms may worsen. Abdominal pains are sharp, paroxysmal. Disturbed by frequent, loose stools up to 15 times a day. The excrement contains mucus, blood. The main color of feces is marsh green. The stomach is drawn in, a rumbling is heard.
Amebic dysentery leads to complications, most often with late initiation of treatment. Complications of dysentery may appear in the form of liver abscess, paraproctitis, peritonitis, opening of intestinal bleeding. All of these conditions can lead to anemia, dystrophy, or even death.
Diagnostics and differentiation
The examination is necessary to clarify the diagnosis in order to prescribe adequate treatment in the future. It is also required to exclude other serious diseases that have similar symptoms: amebiasis, salmonellosis, intestinal colitis, hemorrhoids, oncology.
- with typhoid fever, there are similar manifestations, but a rash additionally appears on the body;
- with cholera, there are no false urges to defecate, and whitish mucus is found in the feces;
- with simple poisoning from low-quality products, severe abdominal pain does not appear, there are no false urges to defecate.
Microbiological diagnosis of dysentery is the main method for studying the feces of a sick person. After taking the biomaterial, sowing should be done as early as possible. In the presence of dysentery sticks, this method allows you to clarify their type and susceptibility to antibiotics.
The doctor examines the patient's complaints carefully. On examination, the skin is examined for the presence of a rash. For a complete picture, laboratory diagnosis of dysentery is required. You will need data from a biochemical blood test, a general blood test, urine and feces. The patient will need to do an ultrasound of the abdominal cavity, on the basis of which it will be seen which organs are involved in the pathological process.
To obtain reliable results, the analysis of feces for dysentery must be collected correctly. How to donate feces? The sampling of biomaterial should be carried out before the start of taking medications, only fresh stools are examined.
It is imperative to conduct an analysis for dysentery for the sensitivity of bacteria to certain antibiotics. For this purpose, feces or vomit are studied in laboratory conditions.
How to treat dysentery depends on the patient's condition and the presence of complications. The symptoms of dysentery in adults depend on the treatment, which can be carried out at home or in a hospital.
Dysentery, like all other infectious diseases, poses a danger to other healthy people, therefore the main condition is that a sick person must be urgently isolated, since the transmission of dysentery is domestic. All family members often fall ill.
During the period of acute dysentery, the patient must be provided with complete rest. Drinking plenty of warm drinks will help to flush toxins out faster. It is recommended to drink decoctions based on chamomile, raisins, rice:
- To restore the water-salt balance, drinking saline solutions is indicated. For this purpose, Regidron, Oralit, Glucosolan are prescribed.
- Often the treatment of dysentery is accompanied by antibiotics: Ampicillin, Tetracycline, Polymyxin. Drugs of the nitrofuran group may be prescribed, for example, Furazolidone.
- To restore intestinal peristalsis and microflora, prebiotics and probiotics will be required: Linex, Bactisubtil.
- Treatment of symptoms of dysentery is carried out in parallel with the intake of absorbents and enterosorbents. They allow you to quickly cope with the toxins that bacteria release: Polysorb, Enterosgel, Smectin.
- How to treat pain syndrome? Antispasmodics such as Papaverine can help relieve spasms and pain.
- Enzyme preparations: Festal, Creon, Mezim, Pancreatin.
- Immunomodulators and vitamin-mineral complexes will help to increase the body's defenses.
You can use traditional medicine recipes, but only in combination with prescribed medications. The most effective and common recipes include ingredients such as onions, garlic, burdock juice, grapes and cherries, and propolis.
With a timely comprehensive therapeutic approach, the disease can be quickly cured, the prognosis is favorable. In some cases, the consequences of dysentery appear in the form of dysbiosis, colitis, gastritis.
The main point of prevention is compliance with sanitary and hygienic rules. Be sure to wash your hands with soap and water before eating, especially in nature and after the street.
Prevention of dysentery also includes the control of insects, which are very common vectors of infections. Flies should not be allowed in the house.