Table of contents:
- What is opisthorchiasis
- What fish are susceptible to opisthorchiasis
- Source of infection
- Preventive measures
- How to treat an ailment
Opisthorchiasis is a hepatic fluke parasitizing the liver and gallbladder. This type of helminthic invasion is currently the most common among the population of the whole world. Opisthorchiasis in fish is harmful to human health. To protect yourself from this ailment, you need to know from which fish you can get opisthorchiasis, and how long it takes to cook each variety.
- 1 What is opisthorchiasis
- 2 What fish are susceptible to opisthorchiasis
- 3 Source of infection
- 4 Preventive measures
- 5 How to treat an illness
What is opisthorchiasis
Opisthorchiasis progresses in both humans and animals. The causative agent of the disease is the cat fluke, a helminth that lives in the body of cats, dogs and humans. The feces of the patient when it enters the reservoir is spread with the help of snails, which swallow the eggs of the worms. Further, the worms enter the fish organism. Further contamination occurs when a person eats undercooked infected fish.
The first symptoms of acute opisthorchiasis appear in an infected person:
- general weakness;
- painful condition;
- slight increase in temperature;
- excessive sweating.
Gradually, the symptoms get worse. With moderate severity of the disease, fever may appear. Catarrhal phenomena in the respiratory tract are possible. It is also possible that the temperature will rise to 40 degrees.
Further, the degree of manifestation of symptoms decreases, and the disease itself becomes chronic, when there is a risk of damage to the liver and biliary tract, the digestion process is disrupted. In the course of the chronic course of the disease, a person gradually begins to develop concomitant diseases:
- persistent hepatitis;
- chronic gastritis;
- allergic reactions (urticaria, Quincke's edema);
What fish are susceptible to opisthorchiasis
To protect yourself from infection, you need to know which fish are susceptible to opisthorchiasis. This disease develops in the body of river species. It is widespread in the rivers of the European part of Russia, and is also noted in Siberia.
Infected individuals can inhabit such Russian rivers as:
The most dangerous are the rivers into which sewage flows. Fishing in such waters should be done with great care.
Many species of freshwater fish are susceptible to infection with opisthorchiasis, but cyprinids are most of all to it.
Most often, helminths of this type are found in the following types of fish:
To determine which fish of a particular region is infected, it is necessary to conduct a study of several species of fish living in the reservoir of this region. It is impossible to find out in which fish there is opisthorchiasis without special research in laboratory conditions.
Source of infection
Most often, infection occurs while eating infected fish, especially if it is poorly processed - not fried or cooked.
Penetrating into the body, helminths move through the duodenum, gallbladder and ducts into the pancreas. Parasites cause serious harm to the body. Here is just a small list of the negative effects of parasites:
- destruction of the mucous membranes of the bile ducts;
- violation of the process of outflow of bile;
- poisoning of the body with toxins;
- allergic reactions;
- neoplasms developing in the liver.
Parasites tolerate low temperatures well. In frozen fish, larval death occurs only after a month. If the fish product was frozen at a temperature of 30 degrees, the death of helminths occurs much faster - they die after six hours.
Heat treatment does not always help to kill all worms. Their death occurs if you cook fish for more than 15 minutes at a temperature of 100 degrees. This is the shortest time for processing fish. The frying time should not be less than 20 minutes. To reduce the risk of infection, you need to know at what temperature and how long to cook the fish.
A softened fish spine indicates that the fish is already ready, there are no parasites left in it. Heat treatment will help kill opisthorchiasis.
Salt the fish at a temperature of about 15 degrees. On average, salting should last at least three weeks. If the dimensions exceed 25 cm in length, the salting will take more time - 40 days.
Cutting is only necessary on special cutting boards, which must be stored separately. They cannot be used for slicing bread or vegetables. The same goes for knives.
If there are pets in the house, then it is better not to feed them raw fish, as the risk of infection is high. The animal will be able to infect itself and become a source of infection for those who live with it in the same territory.
Knowing at what temperature opisthorchiasis dies is the only way to destroy it. It is quite difficult to prevent the development of the disease in any other way. It is not possible to determine the presence of worms in fish with the naked eye.
How to treat an ailment
Opisthorchiasis is a fairly serious disease. If infection could not be avoided, it is necessary to urgently get rid of worms. To do this, you need to consult a doctor for confirming the diagnosis and prescribing a course of treatment to kill worms. For a long time, a person may not even be aware of the presence of parasites in him, attributing the emerging symptoms to another disease.
When prescribing a therapeutic course, the doctor takes into account the degree of damage to the disease and the stage of its development. Treatment is carried out in a comprehensive manner, in several stages. It will be necessary not only to kill opisthorchiasis, but also to eliminate the serious consequences that it inflicted on the body. This is a long and laborious process. Success is guaranteed only with strict adherence to all the recommendations and advice of the doctor - this is how you can get rid of the disease and its consequences.
Infection most often occurs unnoticed by a person, but its consequences can cause significant damage to health. With the observance of preventive measures, it is possible to prevent infection with opisthorchiasis. In which fish are opisthorchis present? The answer to this question will help to avoid the danger.