Table of contents:
Ascariasis is the most common parasitic disease found in pigs. Due to the defeat of pigs with roundworms, they have a delay in growth, development, and also the productivity of gilts decreases by 30%, feed overruns are observed. Therefore, in pig breeding, it is very important to recognize pig ascariasis in time and initiate appropriate treatment.
- 1 Development cycle
- 2 Symptoms
- 3 Diagnostics
- 4.1 Sodium fluorosilicon
- 4.2 Gigrovetin, Swiverm, Nilverm
The development of the parasite is determined by several stages.
- A sexually mature female lays an average of 170 thousand eggs every day, which end up in the environment along with the feces of an infected animal.
- Being in the environment, eggs can develop their ability to infest if the temperature is in the range of 15-35 degrees, there is a sufficient amount of moisture and oxygen. This period usually takes just under a month.
- Pigs swallow eggs with feed mixture or contaminated water. Further, the parasites enter the intestinal area, where larval forms emerge from the eggs.
- The larval form of the parasite enters the bloodstream, bypassing the mucous membrane. Together with the blood, they are transferred to the pulmonary region, where they molt twice.
- Further, the larval parasites pass into the bronchial zone, the trachea, and subsequently into the larynx, where they are again swallowed by the pig and move to the intestinal region.
- In the intestine, within one and a half to three months, the larvae turn into mature individuals. Further, roundworms live here for up to 10 months.
There are two forms of ascaris damage to the swine organism.
- Pulmonary. It is the initial form of the development of pathology, which is manifested by a cough, an increase in respiratory function, an increase in body temperature, nervous disorders in the form of impaired coordination and convulsive seizures. At this time, piglets do not spread parasitic eggs with their feces. Therefore, at the pulmonary stage of the disease, ascariasis is very rarely diagnosed.
- Intestinal. It is a chronic form of the course of pathology. Roundworms cause stool disorders, overexcitation, signs of teeth grinding, and seizures may appear. Piglets can lag behind in development, lose weight, and die.
As a diagnostic study of ascariasis in pigs, a flotation technique is used, which is carried out using ammonium nitrate in granules diluted to a solution of saturated concentration, the Fulleborn method, the Darling method. Also, the diagnosis is based on the presence of pathogenic symptoms.
In case of a fatal outcome, postmortem diagnosis is carried out by autopsy. Ascaris larvae are detected when examining the affected areas of the lungs. For this, the Berman-Orlov technique is used.
For anthelmintic therapy, piperazine is usually prescribed:
These funds are used to eliminate sexually mature and young roundworms. Medications are used as group therapy twice a day - with feeding in the morning and evening. Medicines are given mixed with food, specific preparation is not required.
Ascaris pork in piglets is treated with the same preparations, flavored with meat broth or milk whey. Piglets with decreased appetite are treated in small groups - no more than 30 pigs.
If the farm has special compound feed, which contains piperazine salts in a proportion of 15 kilograms per 1 ton of feed, they are prescribed in a dosage of 40 grams per 1 kilogram of animal weight. However, the dosage should not exceed 2 kilograms per pig. The entire dosage is fed throughout the day.
Also, for the treatment of pigs from ascariasis, sodium fluorosilicate in the form of a dry powder is used. Such a tool is produced in lumps, which must first be dried and crushed to a state of dust.
This drug is used only mixed with dry food in the following proportions: for animals weighing less than 60 kilograms - 2.5 kilograms of the product per 1 ton of feed, with pigs weighing more than 60 kilograms - 1.5 kilograms per 1 ton of feed.
The medicinal feed is thoroughly mixed and distributed to the animals for 3 days. At this time, an unlimited drinking regime is introduced. After the anthelmintic agent has been taken by the animal, roundworms begin to leave its body in a day. The elimination of roundworm continues for 7-8 days. The maximum number of helminths is observed on the 4th day after therapy.
Gigrovetin, Swiverm, Nilverm
Gigrovetin is prescribed in the form of an additive to the feed mixture. It can be applied in several states:
For preventive measures, piglets from 2 weeks of age are prescribed a remedy in the proportion of one and a half kilograms per 1 ton of feed mixture. The course of treatment is 75 days. The medicine is recommended for pigs over 2 months old. The course of treatment is 35 days. In case of a severe invasion, the medicine interferes with the feed mixture in proportions of 2 kilograms per 1 ton, and in other situations - one and a half kilograms.
Suiverm is used for animals in a single dosage of 0.5 grams per kilogram of feed mixture. The method of group feeding is used. Refeeding is carried out in half a month or a month. If a severe infestation is diagnosed in pigs, the dosage is increased to 0.9 grams.
Nilverm is used for subcutaneous administration in the form of a 10% solution. The dosage is determined based on the weight of the animal: 1 milliliter of solution is used per 1 kilogram. For young animals, whose age is 2-6 months, 0.015 grams per kilogram of weight is prescribed. For pigs over six months, 0.01 grams per 1 kilogram of weight is recommended.
In order to protect pigs from ascariasis, you should regularly carry out anthelmintic prophylaxis of animals
For the first time, it is prescribed at the age of 35-45 days. The second prophylaxis is recommended at the age of 50-55 days, and the third one at 3 months of age. Prevention is best done between December and April. Ascariasis of pigs is also subject to prevention 1 month before farrowing. During preventive procedures, animals should be given a complete diet.