Table of contents:
- Eggs and their habitation in the environment
- Life cycle of a parasite
- Transmission routes
- Pathogenesis and symptoms
- Diagnostics, treatment and prevention
Video: Ascaris In Dogs: Symptoms And Treatment Of The Disease
The parasite is roundworm. The owner is representatives of the Canidae family (dogs, foxes, and others).
- 1 Morphology
- 2 Eggs and their habitation in the environment
- 3 Life cycle of the parasite
- 4 Ways of transmission
- 5 Pathogenesis and symptoms
- 6 Diagnosis, treatment and prevention
- 7 Conclusion
Roundworms in dogs cause ascariasis disease or toxocariasis. It is one of the most common endoparasitic diseases in dogs. Although it may seem like a minor problem that will go away after the introduction of antiparasitic drugs, this ailment can cause significant harm to large breeding dogs.
Unfortunately, few dog owners know the life cycle of ascaris in order to be able to prevent the development of a disease such as ascariasis in dogs. At the same time, the owners can periodically inject their pet with drugs against these parasites. If roundworms are found in a dog, this is not enough.
Roundworms are worms with a round body with pointed ends, with a light yellow skin. Males reach 4-10 cm, females - 5-18 cm. Adult roundworms are in the intestine, and their food is its contents.
Eggs are spherical, thick-walled, with a bumpy surface; the blastomere occupies almost the entire contents of the egg. Egg size is 75-85 microns.
Eggs and their habitation in the environment
Roundworm eggs are extremely resistant due to several strong shells. Neither frost, nor dampness, nor ordinary disinfectants can destroy them.
Life cycle of a parasite
As soon as the dog eats the infectious roundworm eggs, larvae develop from them in the small intestine, which pass through the intestinal wall into the blood capillaries and begin to "travel" through the host's body (in our case, the dog). The larvae enter the lungs, then into the trachea, which causes a cough.
As a result, the dog again swallows the larva, which returns through the pharynx to the digestive tract, into the small intestine, where it completes its development into an adult nematode.
The small intestine contains both males and females, which produce eggs that are excreted in dog excrement. They are not yet infectious, that is, after taking them, they do not cause ascariasis. In the presence of appropriate external conditions, they become infectious within 2-4 weeks, and after ingestion of the eggs or the worms themselves by another dog, the process is repeated.
There, these larvae are encapsulated and unnecessarily not released until several years or until conditions in the body change (hormonal changes, etc.). This mode of movement of larvae is called "somatic migration".
If the dog has puppies, the larvae are released and travel through the bloodstream to the mammary gland, entering the milk and causing them to become infected. The infection usually occurs 2–3 weeks after delivery. This method of transmission is called galactogenic.
After birth, the larvae migrate from the liver to the lungs, and then through the stomach into the small intestine. As a result, roundworms are already present in the small intestine of 10-day-old puppies.
Pathogenesis and symptoms
The most common symptom that characterizes canine ascaris in puppies is the ascaris ball (belly full of parasites). This often leads to clogging of the intestinal passage with worms, which instead of leaving the body pass inward - into the stomach. As a result, the parasites come out with the vomit.
Other symptoms include itchy skin (caused by a toxin produced by roundworms), oily hair, hives, loss of appetite, seizures, exhaustion, anemia, metabolic osteopathy, and vomiting. A severe form of ascaris in dogs, which is not treated, can lead to the death of the puppy.
Diagnostics, treatment and prevention
Sometimes parasites are found in feces or vomit - the presence of eggs is determined by microscopic examination of feces. However, the fact that no eggs or parasites were found in the dog's droppings does not mean that the animal is not infected. There is a possibility that somatic larvae are deposited in organs, waiting for the opportunity to travel.
Repeated tests are the best way to prevent an outbreak of toxocariasis
If you want to mate your dog and want to avoid an outbreak of ascariasis in puppies, deworm the animal just before mating. Then it is necessary to deworm her puppies at the age of 2-3 weeks after birth. The procedure should be repeated every 14 days until the puppies are 3 months old, since the greatest risk of infection is present at this age.
After 6 months of age puppies are monthly microscopic examinations of their litter. After 1 year, if you exclude the possibility of regular examination of feces, it is recommended to carry out deworming at least 4 times a year.
After 2-3 weeks, you need to repeat the therapy, removing the larvae that migrated after deworming, and antiparasitic drugs could not work on them (these drugs work only in the intestines). This will prevent further environmental pollution.
It is necessary to disinfect the places where the dog lives: cleaning the animal's sleeping place, removing the top layer of sand in the toilet, disinfecting the floors.
Older dogs rarely have adult roundworms in their intestines. With age, resistance (resistance) develops, and a greater number of larvae undergo somatic migration. Few of them end up in the intestines.
The best way to prevent an outbreak of toxocariasis (ascariasis) in dogs is to regularly examine the animal's droppings. It will help avoid the death of puppies and diseases resulting from a decrease in the defenses of the pet's body.