Oral Myiasis - Causes, Signs, Symptoms And Treatment

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Oral Myiasis - Causes, Signs, Symptoms And Treatment
Oral Myiasis - Causes, Signs, Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Oral Myiasis - Causes, Signs, Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Oral Myiasis - Causes, Signs, Symptoms And Treatment
Video: MYIASIS 2023, December

Factors that provoke the development of oral myiasis in humans


  • 1 Description of the disease
  • 2 Varieties of oral myiasis
  • 3 Epidemiology
  • 4 Reasons for the development of myiasis
  • 5 Symptoms and signs of pathology
  • 6 Diagnosis of myiasis
  • 7 Treatment of pathology
  • 8 Traditional therapy
  • 9 Forecast and prevention

Among all the parasitic diseases that a person may encounter throughout his life, the most terrible are oral myiasis , which develop when the larvae of dipterans, most often flies, enter the oral cavity.

Over the course of one day, they develop there, then begin to eat epithelial tissues and even bone parts, provoking the appearance of inflammatory processes, bleeding, and sometimes death.

Throughout the history of medical practice, there have been cases when up to forty parasites were removed from the oral cavity, which provoked dangerous health complications. Oral myiasis is very rare today.

Description of the disease


Oral myiasis is a dangerous parasitic disease caused by the larvae of blowflies, sand fleas and bovine gadflies, which belong to the suborder Cochliomyia hominivorax.

Once in the oral cavity, insect eggs turn into larvae, which begin to develop, eating epithelial tissue in large volumes to such an extent that ioniums lose their ability to regenerate, and also provoke the appearance of an inflammatory process, secondary infections, ulcers and bleeding.

The larvae themselves secrete toxic enzymes during their life, causing the development of extensive tissue necrosis. Sand fleas have the ability to penetrate the tissues of the mucous membrane through the loopholes they make. There they swell to a large size, contributing to the formation of ulcers.

You can become infected with this disease as a result of the ingestion of both insect eggs and live larvae. If there are wounds, cracks or scratches in the oral cavity, then the larvae penetrate them and develop there.

If the parasite enters the child's body, the death of the child is most often observed due to the appearance of complications. Often, oral myiasis is accompanied by other types of this pathology, which greatly complicates treatment.


Varieties of oral myiasis

The types of disease depend on the characteristics of the pathogen. It is customary to distinguish such forms of pathology:

  1. Miasis is optional, which appears when the eggs or larvae of houseplants, as well as meat flies, accidentally hit.
  2. Miasis is obligate, characterized by the parasitic lifestyle of the pathogen. Most often, the disease is observed in animals, a person rarely suffers in this case.
  3. Accidental myiasis appears when those larvae that normally parasitize in decaying tissues enter the oral cavity, and they accidentally got to humans when they eat foods with insect eggs.



Myases in the mouth are rare. Most often, the pathology is observed in people who suffer from alcoholism, drug addiction, as well as in those who live in unfavorable sanitary and hygienic conditions.

Countries with tropical climates such as Africa, Mexico, New Guinea, and especially rural areas are considered epidemic regions. In Russia, pathology is very rare.

It appears in most cases due to the negligence of a person, as well as if he has running purulent infectious processes, open wounds in the oral cavity that are not subject to medical treatment.

In addition, myiasis can be observed in elderly people who do not have the opportunity to serve themselves on their own, and there is no help from other people. In some cases, the disease is combined with other pathologies, for example, with cerebral palsy.


The reasons for the development of myiasis

There are several factors that can trigger the development of the disease in humans:

  1. Failure to comply with oral hygiene, failure to comply with hygiene measures;
  2. Chronic alcoholism and drug addiction;
  3. Senile and infancy;
  4. The presence in the mouth of purulent infectious processes, open wounds;
  5. Profuse salivation;
  6. The presence of serious diseases in the body.

    Profuse salivation
    Profuse salivation
    Chronic alcoholism
    Chronic alcoholism

Symptoms and signs of pathology

The symptomatology of the pathology depends on the type of parasite that has settled in the mouth. When the larvae of an insect of the Sarcophagidae species, which include gray and green meat flies, are infected, the following signs of infection appear:

  • Severe itching, swollen gums;
  • Coughing fits, nasal swelling, nasal breathing difficulties.

When the larvae of the type Oestrus ovis, in particular the sheep's gadfly, are affected, symptoms such as bleeding from the gums, inflammation of the epithelium of the oral cavity, general malaise, weakness, fever, inability to chew food appear.


Parasites of the species Chrysomya bezziana, which include the blue fly, cause the formation of ulcers on the epithelium of the oral cavity, fistula on the lip, which leads to their swelling, the appearance of pain, fever, and malaise. These parasites live in the gum pockets, palate and cheek epithelium.

Oral myiasis caused by one of the representatives of Cochliomya hominivorax, in particular the gray carnivorous fly, is most often fatal, since the parasite tends to multiply rapidly and eat up huge areas of tissue, causing profuse bleeding.

With the progression of the disease, a person experiences body aches, pain, body temperature rises, weakness and fever appear, and difficulty in eating. Over time, the entire oral cavity becomes covered with ulcers, fistulas are formed that secrete pus.


Due to the release by parasites of waste products, which are toxic, the patient develops various allergic reactions.

Note! With the development of any signs of pathology, it is necessary to urgently contact a medical institution, since the disease often ends in death.

Diagnosis of myiasis

Before prescribing treatment, the doctor needs to assess the area of the lesion. To do this, he examines the oral cavity using a magnifying device. So he assesses the intensity of the lesion.

Often, doctors differentiate oral myiasis from rhinitis of a different etiology, Larva Migrans syndrome, helminth invasions, and others.

When diagnosing a disease, the doctor pays attention to the following points:

  1. Location of parasites;
  2. Number of larvae;
  3. The intensity of the lesion;
  4. Type of pathogen.


It is imperative to exclude the possibility of the presence of parasites in other parts of the body and internal organs, so the patient is sent for examination to other specialists, during which ultrasound of internal organs, MRI and CT can be used. Considering all these points, the physician develops a treatment plan.

Pathology treatment

In the treatment of oral myiasis, a surgical method is used, during which the doctor removes all larvae from the oral cavity, including from the fistulous passages and gums. Before the procedure, the doctor treats the oral cavity with the drug "Ivermekntin", which has a detrimental effect on parasites, paralyzing and destroying them.

After removing them with tweezers, the oral cavity is treated with a special disinfectant solution. Then the patient is prescribed antibacterial drugs, the action of which is aimed at protecting the lesions from the ingress of pathogenic microorganisms, as well as antiseptic solutions for rinsing so that the wounds on the epithelium heal faster.


Treatment with "Inverkmentin" has contraindications. This drug is not used to treat pregnant and lactating women, children under five years of age, people using herbal preparations and dietary supplements, with a tendency to allergic reactions, low immunity, asthma and meningitis, renal or liver failure.

Treatment of oral myiasis involves the following procedures:

  1. Washing with antiseptic solutions of lesions (potassium permanganate or furacilin);
  2. Oiling wounds and ulcers where parasites have entered, so that they get out;
  3. Extraction of larvae with tweezers;
  4. Disinfection of affected areas;
  5. Prescribing antibiotic therapy.


Note! People living in the least developed countries with tropical climates are most likely to die due to illness, as they do not have the opportunity to receive timely medical care.

If the larvae from the oral cavity have penetrated deeper, the person is prescribed surgical intervention under local anesthesia. After that, a course of antibiotics and anthelmintic drugs is prescribed. Therefore, it is so important to identify the disease at an early stage, when it did not lead to complications and negative consequences.

Traditional therapy

Together with conservative treatment, you can use traditional medicine, but only after consulting a doctor. For this purpose, a large number of products with cinnamon, caraway seeds, onions and garlic are used in food. You can also drink tea made from fennel, currant leaves, celandine.

Forecast and prevention

Usually, the prognosis of oral myiasis is favorable with timely treatment. Modern medicine is able to eliminate pathology and its consequences. But this disease is dangerous because of the possibility of irreversible damage to tissues without the possibility of their restoration.

When the larvae migrate to the internal organs, their destruction can occur, which often leads to death. Some causative agents of the disease are capable of infecting not only the epithelium of the oral cavity, but also bone tissue, which leads to further disability of the patient.

Oral myiasis is easier to prevent than to cure. For this, it is necessary to comply with sanitary and hygienic standards. When visiting tropical countries, it is recommended to consult a doctor and get the necessary vaccinations. Flies and other parasitic insects should not come into contact with food.

For preventive purposes, it is recommended to follow simple rules, which are expressed in the following points:

  • Destruction of insects when they enter the room;
  • Inadmissibility of the accumulation of waste products of animal origin near the place of residence;
  • Thorough washing of products before use;
  • Use of insect repellents during outdoor recreation;
  • If signs of infection appear, see a doctor.

    Inadmissibility of waste accumulation near the place of residence
    Inadmissibility of waste accumulation near the place of residence
    Insect repellents
    Insect repellents
    Thorough washing of food before use
    Thorough washing of food before use

All these rules will help to preserve not only health, but also life, since in some cases oral myiasis is fatal.

Note! Children are most at risk of contracting the disease due to poor hygiene. Therefore, parents should closely monitor their children.