Table of contents:
- Symptoms and signs of the appearance of brain parasites, treatment
- Methods for the entry of parasites into the brain
- Brain worms
- Cysticercosis: a description of the disease
- Symptoms and signs of cysticercosis
- Diagnosis of the disease
- Echinococcosis: a description of the pathology
- Symptoms and signs of the disease
- Diagnosis of pathology
- Treatment of brain lesions with helminths
- Consequences and complications
- Forecast and prevention
Video: Brain Parasites (in The Human Brain) - Symptoms And Treatment
Symptoms and signs of the appearance of brain parasites, treatment
- 1 Ways of entry of parasites into the brain
- 2 Worms that infect the brain
- 3 Cysticercosis: description of the disease
- 4 Symptoms and signs of cysticercosis
- 5 Diagnosis of the disease
- 6 Echinococcosis: description of pathology
- 7 Symptoms and signs of illness
- 8 Diagnosis of pathology
- 9 Treatment of brain lesions with helminths
- 10 Consequences and complications
- 11 Forecast and prevention
Many believe that helminths can only live in the human gastrointestinal tract, so you can easily get rid of them. In fact, some worms are able to move through the body with the bloodstream, settling in various organs of the human body, including the brain.
Brain parasites can provoke the appearance of negative consequences in the form of severe changes in an important organ, which poses a threat to human life
Methods for the entry of parasites into the brain
Helminth eggs are found everywhere, as they tend to wait for entry into a favorable environment for a long period of time. They enter the human body with unwashed food and contaminated water, through contact with pets, through dirty hands, raw meat and fish.
After entering the gastrointestinal tract, helminth eggs begin to actively develop and transform into a larva, which is attached to the walls of the epithelium with the help of special suction cups. The larva can move through the veins in the intestine with the blood flow, entering the brain. If the worms enter the respiratory system, they also travel through the respiratory tract to the brain.
Sometimes the eggs of the worms can enter the brain when a person is bathed in polluted water through the auricles. In the brain tissues, helminths can be asymptomatic for more than twenty years.
When the helminth dies, its body remains in the human body, provoking intoxication with decay products, which provokes the appearance of a chronic inflammatory process or cerebral edema.
In most cases, the following parasites are observed in the human brain:
Echinococcus (bovine tapeworm), which are tapeworms, which form an echinococcal bladder in one of the cerebral hemispheres, which eventually forms secondary, and then grandchildren blisters
Note! Echinococci in the brain provoke the development of a cyst with several cavities that contain fluid. Growing up, it bursts, cystic fluid flows out of the eye sockets or nasal sinuses of a person.
Cysticercus (pork tapeworm), which is the larval stage of the tapeworm, which is called pork tapeworm. The larva is located in the cerebral cortex, forming a bubble. Cysticercus causes the development of a disease such as Cysticercosis.
Parasites such as trypanosomes in the human brain are rarely seen. Usually it ends up in the human body due to the bite of the tsetse fly. Helminth is a tapeworm that is microscopic in size, it contributes to the development of the so-called sleeping sickness in humans, which is fatal.
But this type of helminth can only be infected in African countries. It is also rare that a person becomes infected with the amoeba Naegleria fowleri. This happens while swimming in a muddy reservoir. Infection with this parasite is always fatal.
Note! In modern times, there are two types of helminths that often affect the human brain. These include echinococcus and cysticercus.
Cysticercosis: a description of the disease
Parasites are located in the brain due to the blood flow in the vessels. The larva forms a bubble in the cerebral cortex, inside which it develops. After the death of the parasite, the bladder begins to fester, provoking the development of an inflammatory neoplasm. In medicine, it is customary to distinguish:
- Solitary cysticercosis, in which one bladder forms in a specific area of the brain;
- Racemic cysticercosis, which is the development of a large number of blisters that form a bunch, similar to a bunch of grapes, they grow rapidly and can reach a size of twelve centimeters;
Multiple cysticercosis, characterized by the presence of separately located blisters.
Note! This disease is very dangerous, at the initial stages of development it does not show any signs. After suffering the disease, a person becomes disabled, as epilepsy develops and the activity of the nervous system is disrupted.
These brain parasites are found in 4% of people worldwide, most often in the adult population.
Symptoms and signs of cysticercosis
Symptoms of the disease depend on the location of the cysticercus. Helminth can be found in the cerebral hemispheres, ventricles, base of the brain. The first signs of the disease are manifested in the form of an increase in intracranial pressure, pain, dizziness.
Often the patient's head must be in a certain position to relieve pain. Disorders of movements and psyche, as well as paresis, often occur.
With cysticercosis, parasites in the brain exhibit the following symptoms:
- Severe pain syndrome, accompanied by vomiting;
- Changes in body temperature;
- Development of meningitis or epilepsy;
- Lethargy, developing into mental degradation;
- Violation of the central nervous system;
Mental disorders, expressed in inadequate neurotic reactions.
Diagnosis of the disease
The diagnosis is difficult. To determine the causes of pathology, X-ray of the brain and muscles of the upper and lower extremities is used, which shows the presence of seals with distinct contours.
Also, angiography of the brain, encephalography, RNGA tests, NRIF tests, as well as PCK and ELISA studies are used as diagnostic methods.
Puncture of the cerebrospinal fluid indicates the presence of an inflammatory process due to the high content of protein and leukocytes in it, as well as eosinophils.
Echinococcosis: a description of the pathology
Echinococci are frequent parasites in the human brain that get there along with the bloodstream. They form cysts filled with fluid, which grow over time. The parasites cause depletion of the cranial bones, so they can be damaged even with minor head injuries.
Echinococcosis in modern times occurs in 3% of people on our planet. Most often, parasites are located in the cerebral hemispheres and middle cerebral artery, sometimes they are located in the subarachnoid space.
Cysts are of several types:
- Primary neoplasms that appear when the parasite enters the brain with blood flow;
- Secondary cysts, characterized by damage to the brain tissue when the primary cyst ruptures as a result of trauma or during surgery.
The disease can last for a long period of time, cysts grow slowly, annually increasing in volume by more than one centimeter
Symptoms and signs of the disease
aIn 99% of cases, a person goes to a medical institution after the neoplasm grows to a gigantic size.
According to the signs of development, echinococcosis is similar to a malignant tumor. A person experiences severe pain, accompanied by vomiting, spasms, epileptic seizures often appear, visual and speech impairment occurs.
Painful sensations also arise when moving the eyeballs. With untimely treatment, impaired coordination of movements develops, inability to perform simple movements with the upper limbs, paralysis, mental disorder, convulsions. The disease can occur with long periods of remission.
All of these symptoms can increase over time due to the development and growth of the cyst.
Note! A dangerous phenomenon in echinococcosis is the defeat of the bones of the skull with their further depletion, which can lead to complications in the form of fractures with minor head injuries.
Parasites in the brain cause psychomotor impairment over time and contribute to personality disorder. Being in the main human organ for a long period of time, they cause rapid aging of the body, provoking the development of senile marasmus.
Diagnosis of pathology
Laboratory diagnostic methods in this case are ineffective, eosinophilia is found in the blood only in a third of patients. In some cases, doctors use skin allergy tests and ELISA.
When diagnosing pathology, they resort to MRI, CT or ultrasound of the brain in order to detect cysts. With computed tomography, a living parasite can be seen, which has clear outlines.
When a dead helminth is found, a site of changes in brain tissue is found. In frequent cases, chemiluminescence of the cerebrospinal fluid is used.
An accurate diagnosis is also made if the following factors are present:
- Prolonged epileptic seizures;
- The presence of meningitis;
- Brain damage that develops slowly;
- Diagnostic research data.
Note! It is very problematic to identify echinococcosis; in frequent cases, the disease is confused with a brain tumor. This diagnosis is refuted during the operation or after the autopsy.
Treatment of brain lesions with helminths
High-quality treatment consists of surgical removal of helminths. During the operation, the parasites in the brain are removed along with the blisters and cysts. Usually, such treatment contributes to the complete disposal of a person from worms.
If surgery is impossible for some reason, doctors use palliative treatment. Relapses usually do not appear after treatment.
If the disease does not cause damage to the central nervous system and the appearance of other symptoms, the operation is not performed, the patient is constantly monitored.
Often, doctors resort to chemotherapy, followed by the use of anthelmintic drugs. This can help remove microscopic parasites that were not identified at the time of diagnosis.
The patient is prescribed glucocorticoids, Praziquantel, which help to reduce the inflammatory process and eliminate tissue edema.
After treatment, the person is under the supervision of a doctor for some time. For four years, the patient needs to undergo immunological blood tests.
Consequences and complications
The presence of helminths in the brain often leads to irreversible organ changes that can lead to death. Often, diseases cause the development of the following complications:
- Violation of cerebral circulation as a result of compression of blood vessels and tissues;
- Violation of the cerebrospinal fluid flow;
- Changes in the activity of the central nervous system;
- Rapid growth of fibrous tissue;
- The appearance of strokes, ischemia;
- Development of inflammation and abscess;
The most dangerous complication is the rupture of a cyst or bladder, this often leads to death. Therefore, it is so important to identify the disease at an early stage of its development, as well as undergo a course of therapy.
Forecast and prevention
In most cases, the prognosis of the disease is favorable. With the defeat of the CNR and the impossibility of surgical intervention, the prognosis for a person will be negative.
Preventive measures include compliance with sanitary and hygiene standards. It is not recommended to eat with dirty hands and drink untreated water. Particular attention should be paid to nails, because this is where parasites most often live.
As a preventive measure, it is recommended to periodically take antihelminthic drugs, especially for children, it is also necessary to give such drugs to pets.
If you suspect the presence of worms in the body, you need to undergo an examination and a course of therapy to eliminate the risk of them entering the brain. Otherwise, the risk of fatal complications increases.