Table of contents:
- Trichinella infection symptoms
- Reasons for infection
- Symptoms of trichinosis in humans
- Drug treatment
2023 Author: Riley Dean | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-08-25 08:37
Trichinella infection symptoms
- 1 Causes of infection
- 2 Varieties
- 3 Symptoms of trichinosis in humans
- 4 Diagnostics
5 Drug treatment
5.1 Traditional methods of treatment
- 6 Complications
- 7 Prevention
Trichinella are nematodes, the length of which ranges from 1 to 4 mm. They have a structure typical for roundworms. Trichinella is found in more than 100 mammalian species, in the muscles of which they are present in encapsulated form. There they remain throughout the life of the owner, which is why the potential danger remains forever. A person can contract trichinosis by eating contaminated meat.
Reasons for infection
Reasons for infection
Trichinosis is a parasitic disease caused by Trichinella larvae. It is caused by eating contaminated meat and meat products. The infection begins to spread actively due to the following factors:
- Decline of the body's immune abilities;
- High susceptibility of a person to the pathogen;
- The high prevalence of the pathogen in certain climatic zones.
In most cases, trichinosis manifests itself in group outbreaks - all family members who eat the same foods become infected at the same time. Studies have shown that modern types of Trichinella are able to spread through poultry meat. The greatest danger for the spread of parasites is posed by meat products that have not undergone heat treatment.
Trichinosis is a dangerous parasitic disease. Modern experts distinguish the following phases of pathology:
- Intestinal - direct infection with Trichinella larvae through the consumption of infected meat. In the process of digestion, the capsules are destroyed, the larvae themselves rapidly spread throughout the body. Within 3-4 days they develop, and already mature individuals are able to further reproduce offspring. This phase can last from 10 to 45 days, after this time the female dies.
- Migration - parasites enter the lymphatic tract, after which they enter the bloodstream and rapidly spread throughout the body. This stage usually begins 6 days after infection.
- Muscular - Trichinella larvae enter the striated muscles, in which they settle for a long time. So they grow, after which they curl up into a spiral. After several weeks, protective capsules appear around them, which eventually become lime-coated.
Symptoms of trichinosis in humans
Trichinosis has several forms of the disease, but they all proceed in almost the same way. First of all, a person begins to feel serious pain in the abdomen, after which he is faced with a digestive disorder: he has nausea, vomiting, loose stools. Over time, the body temperature rises, but during the day it fluctuates - it can be within normal limits, and it can rise to 39 degrees. Also, puffiness forms on the face, eyelids are especially affected, muscle pains appear.
It should be borne in mind that trichinosis has a rather long incubation period, so it is quite difficult to determine exactly when the infection occurred. Depending on how severe the symptoms are, trichinosis can be of the following forms:
- Asymptomatic - a person feels a slight malaise, his body temperature rises, muscle pain occurs. A complete blood count shows an increased level of eosinophils up to 12% - a normal reaction of the immune and circulatory systems.
- Light - the patient's body temperature rises rapidly, more pronounced painful sensations appear in the body, migraines appear. The level of eosinophils in the blood rises to 20%.
- Medium - in this case, the incubation period becomes shorter, the disease almost immediately enters the acute phase. A person can feel severe muscle pain, a rapid increase in body temperature up to 40 degrees, which cannot be reduced by any medication. Swelling of the eyelids is pronounced, conjunctivitis may occur. There are also signs of an allergic reaction, the work of the cardiovascular system, the gastrointestinal tract is disrupted.
- Severe - in this case, the manifestations of trichinosis are extremely similar to the course of influenza or of the abdominal type. The work of the central nervous system is disrupted, the body temperature is extremely high and remains at this level for several weeks. The patient develops delusional states, the blood vessels swell and become inflamed. If you do not start drug treatment in time, the risk of death is extremely high.
It should be borne in mind that the course of trichinosis in children and adults is different. Usually, children do not have a moderate and severe form of parasitic infection, they have a mild and asymptomatic form. This feature is associated with the development of the immune system, which is able to overcome the manifestations of parasites.
If you develop any symptoms that may indicate trichinosis, you should see your doctor immediately. He will collect a detailed history, after which he will visually examine the patient. To finally confirm the diagnosis, you will be sent for the following examinations:
- General blood analysis;
- Blood chemistry;
- General urine analysis;
- Muscle biopsy;
- Biopsy of gastric juice;
- Allergen tests;
- X-ray examination;
Before prescribing treatment for trichinosis, the attending physician must confirm this diagnosis. After that, you will be prescribed antiparasitic drugs that will kill Trichinella, such as Mebendazole, Albendazole or Vermox. If you can start complex drug treatment in a timely manner, you can reduce the risk of further complications. If therapy was started 3-4 weeks after infection, then it will be impossible to completely get rid of the infection and signs of pathology. Trichinella larvae can live in the human body for decades.
Studies have shown that treatment for trichinosis is most effective if it is started 3 days after infection. However, it is extremely rare to diagnose deviations so quickly. Antihelminthic drugs must be taken within 2-3 weeks, the doctor will describe the exact treatment regimen. This is the only way to kill not only adults, but also small larvae.
It should be borne in mind that antihelminthic drugs can be taken only after a doctor's prescription. These drugs have potent bone marrow toxicity. It is for this reason that, with long-term treatment, the patient must regularly take tests to identify side effects. If they appear, the drug should be stopped immediately. With extreme caution, antihelminthics are taken by pregnant and lactating women.
With serious damage to the body and the occurrence of multiple signs of intoxication, steroid drugs are prescribed. The most popular is prednisone, which helps reduce muscle soreness. In case of severe infection, trichinosis is treated in a hospital setting. Keep in mind that during the first days of therapy, the symptoms of infection may increase - this is due to the massive death of the parasites. To prevent negative manifestations, droppers with a colloidal solution are prescribed.
Traditional methods of treatment
Cope with adults of Trichinella in the state and recipes of traditional medicine. It should be borne in mind that from the larvae in the tissues, such drugs have no effect. It is for this reason that the methods of alternative therapy cannot be considered as the main treatment - they can only be used to alleviate the signs of general poisoning of the body. The most effective recipes for trichinosis are:
- A decoction of tansy will help quickly kill adults and remove them from the body. To prepare it, take 2 tablespoons of the crushed flowers of this plant, pour 0.5 liters of water and keep on low heat for 10 minutes. After this time, leave the medicine to infuse, then strain. Take a decoction of 100 ml 3 times a day half an hour before meals.
- Milk thistle oil has a positive effect on digestion and accelerates the recovery of the small intestine. You can buy it ready-made at any pharmacy. Take a teaspoonful of medicine 3 times a day with meals for a month.
You can also make a medicated mixture of 6 teaspoons of milk thistle oil and 0.5 liters of olive oil. Put the mixture in a water bath for 15 minutes, then strain the medicine and take 50 ml half an hour before meals 3 times a day for a month.
Milk thistle oil
Ivanchenko's recipe - for its preparation, take the same amount of inflorescences of tansy, cloves and wormwood. After that, each time brew 3 grams of the finished mixture, dilute with a little water and take half an hour before meals, three times a day for a month.
- Mistletoe therapy - to prepare such a medicine, it is necessary to grind the leaves of this plant. After that, take a teaspoon of the medicine and pour 250 ml of cold water over it. Insist the remedy for 6 hours, then take 100 ml immediately before meals.
Dandelion treatment - grind the pre-dried flowers, then pour a glass of boiling water over one teaspoon of the prepared mixture. Infuse the medicine for an hour, then take it 4 times a day with meals.
Keep in mind that it is extremely dangerous to treat trichinosis on your own. This can lead to serious negative consequences: complications and even death. In this case, with a severe and large-scale infection with trichinosis, the patient is immediately sent to the hospital. Alternative therapy methods can be used as ancillary, but not the main therapy.
In the absence of proper treatment, trichinosis always leads to serious complications. Most often, people face the following negative consequences:
- Myocarditis - an inflammatory process in the heart muscle, which is of an allergic nature and leads to a change in immune abilities (statistics show that death most often occurs for this reason);
- Pneumonia - damage to the lungs, which is caused by the accumulation of eosinophils, or allergic cells in their cavity;
- Pleurisy - an acute inflammation of the connective tissue of the lungs (along the course of the pathology resembles bronchial asthma);
- Meningoencephalitis - acute inflammation of the lining of the brain;
- Hepatitis - inflammation of the immune cells of the liver tissue;
- Nephritis - inflammation of the kidneys, narrowing of their lumens and decreased functionality.
To reduce the risk of trichinosis, only full compliance with all safety rules will help. It is very important to adhere to the following recommendations:
- Refuse the use of meat and meat products that have not undergone heat treatment;
- If it is impossible to refuse this, then buy products only from certified sellers;
When buying meat, always ask about the seller, whether there is a certificate of veterinary examination;
- If you are raising pigs on a home plot, then be sure to check their purity in the laboratory before use;
- Do not feed pets with meat of killed predators that has not passed sanitary inspection;
- Never try raw minced meat during cooking;
- Give up the free grazing of pigs and their stall;
- Make sure that domestic pigs do not eat the corpses of rodents;
- Regularly disinfect stalls where pets are kept;
- Monitor the state of your immunity;
- See your doctor regularly for diagnostic tests.
Trichinosis. The causative agent of trichinosis. The prevalence of trichinosis. The source of trichinosis. Symptoms of trichinosis in humans. Trichinosis treatment
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