Table of contents:
- Signs of giardiasis in adults and treatment options for pathology
- Protozoa infection methods
- How to recognize an infection
- Methods for diagnosing giardiasis
- Ways to get rid of infection
- Food treatment
- Alternative medicine against lamblia
- Preventive actions
Signs of giardiasis in adults and treatment options for pathology
- 1 Methods of infection with protozoa
- 2 How to recognize an infection
- 3 Methods for diagnosing giardiasis
- 4 Ways to Get Rid of Infection
- 5 Food treatment
- 6 Alternative medicine against lamblia
- 7 Preventive measures
Giardia in adults is a widespread disease provoked by a parasitic infection of the flagellate genus.
Giardia develops in 2 forms - mobile (trophosis) and motionless (cysts). According to clinical observations, it is enough for a patient to pick up a dozen cysts from the outside, so that over time they can be given out in hundreds at the time of defecation. At first, the infection does not manifest itself in anything, but its carrier is already actively infecting his environment. To defeat giardiasis, you need to know everything about it: ways of infection, symptoms, methods of treating adults.
Protozoa infection methods
Protozoa infection methods
Single-celled parasites of the flagellate family are incredibly viable even in an unfavorable environment. Unlike other parasites, these microorganisms inhabit the small intestine in the human body. Trophosis in appearance resembles a pear, to which 8 tourniquets and a suction cup are attached, which allows them to be fixed on the walls of the small intestine. This species of unicellular organisms can migrate to the distal and middle gastrointestinal tract. In the large intestine, conditions for vegetative parasites are unfavorable, so they are transformed into cysts that get out with feces.
In the body, protozoa reproduce at a tremendous rate. After attaching to the walls of the mucous membrane, they actively absorb any nutrients in the form of vitamins, carbohydrates, fats, amino acids, paralyze the functioning of the intestine, and change its peristalsis. As a result, a person does not receive enough energy, his state of health worsens, the pancreas and bile ducts suffer.
The vital activity of lamblia is accompanied by the production of toxins. Poisons affect the small intestine, reduce the capacity of enzymes, and impair the absorption of nutrients.
Outside the human body, cysts remain viable for three months. You can get infected with parasites in different ways:
- Contact-household method - characterized by the penetration of microorganisms through dirty hands and household items (clothes, dishes, toys), with insufficient adherence to personal hygiene standards;
- Waterway - infection occurs through poorly purified water from the water supply system, as well as from untested reservoirs (water from the water supply system should also be boiled);
- Food method - involves infection with foods without proper heat treatment and raw, poorly washed fruit-vegetables.
In addition to the main routes of infection, rodents, insects, and domestic animals can be sources of parasites.
How to recognize an infection
The clinical picture of the disease is multivariate and it is associated with various factors: the duration of infection, the degree of infection of the body, age characteristics. Often the chronic stage of the disease proceeds latently and is recognized only by disorders of the gastrointestinal tract:
- Discomfort in the right hypochondrium and epigastrium;
- Decreased appetite, feeling of too quick satiety;
- Dyspeptic disorders;
- Heartburn, belching;
- Violations of the rhythm of defecation;
- Swelling, increased sweating.
Systematic body poisoning is externally manifested:
- Dryness, paleness, or yellowing of the skin;
- Cracks in the corners of the mouth;
- Headaches, coordination disorders;
- Fast and incomprehensible fatigue;
- Increased anxiety and irritability;
- Depressive conditions, poor sleep quality.
The chronic stage often leads to stagnation of bile, disruption of the gallbladder and ducts. If lamblia is inside the gallbladder, inflammation develops, accompanied by cholecystitis. Subsequently, weak immunity fails to defeat the infection, this provokes degenerative changes in the small intestine.
The acute form of the disease can be recognized by weakness, unmotivated weight loss, intestinal colic, psychovegetative disorders, and allergic reactions.
If a patient is diagnosed with gastrointestinal diseases such as duodenitis, enterocolitis, cholecystitis, biliary dyskinesia, these may well be the consequences of disguised giardiasis. Allergic symptoms as a result of intoxication of the body with parasites resemble atopic dermatitis, accompanied by cough, runny nose and even bronchial asthma.
The set of signs of giardiasis is often accompanied by VSD, loss of interest in life, increased irritability, loss of strength. Therefore, the main goal of the doctor should be an accurate diagnosis that allows him to draw up an adequate treatment regimen to free the body from infection.
Professor E. Malysheva tells about the symptoms of giardiasis in adults in the video:
Methods for diagnosing giardiasis
The difficulty in diagnosing giardiasis is that it does not have unambiguous clinical symptoms. Immunodeficiency provoked by the presence of unicellular organisms in the body is a trigger for the development of many serious diseases. The diagnosis is based on several methods:
- Probing of the upper part of the small intestine and analysis of the contents.
- Studies of feces for the presence of cysts. Taking into account the incubation period, such analyzes are repeated weekly, for 2 months, since a single examination does not give an accurate picture.
- Interotest. An advanced diagnostic method involves swallowing a gelatin capsule with a nylon thread inside. Gelatin dissolves in the intestine, and the thread, with parasites attached to it, comes out.
To clarify the picture, specific methods are also used, for example, the serological method - it makes it possible to detect antibodies to parasites in the blood.
Ways to get rid of infection
In the method of treating giardiasis in adults, it can be divided into 3 stages:
- In the preparatory period, all measures are aimed at eliminating the consequences of intoxication by prescribing a special diet that prevents the spread of parasites. In parallel with the diet for 7-14 days, the patient takes sorbents, antihistamines and choleretic agents that cleanse the body and prevent the development of complications during the period of basic drug therapy.
- The next step involves the main antiparasitic treatment with drugs that destroy protozoa - Furazolidone, Metronidazole, Ornidazole, Tinidazole, Albendazole. The choice of specific medications is already the competence of the doctor, taking into account the age, condition of the patient, concomitant diseases and contraindications. Medicines prescribed at the beginning of the course are not canceled during this period.
- The final stage is characterized by the concentration of efforts to strengthen the immune system. The patient is prescribed prebiotics, multivitamins, enzymes, adaptogens. Diet food plays an important role at this point.
To eliminate the infection, new powerful medicines have been developed today - Nemozol and Macmiror. The latter, in parallel with the elimination of microorganisms, helps to treat concomitant pathologies (stomach ulcers, infections of the genitourinary system). Nemozole is used in conjunction with other medicines. The pharmacological form of the drug is multivariate: tablets, syrup, solution for injections. The medicine is serious, it is not recommended to use it without the appointment of a specialist, the entire dosage and frequency of application in this case are purely individual.
In the acute stage of giardiasis, symptoms are stopped with Metronidazole, a single-phase therapeutic regimen is designed for 5-7 days.
Diet food in the initial phase of treatment is aimed at inhibiting the activity of parasites with the help of a certain group of products. The diet is low-carb, primarily baked goods and sweets are limited. The diet is based on protein products, as well as dishes with a high concentration of coarse fiber. The patient's diet at this time consists of:
- Vegetables (fresh and boiled);
- Dried fruits;
- Various cereals - "slow" carbohydrates;
- Lean meat;
- Oils (vegetable origin).
At the last stage, the emphasis is shifted towards dishes that activate the intestines:
- Fish and meat (boiled);
- Dairy products such as kefir or homemade cheese;
- fruit and vegetable purees;
- Porridge made from buckwheat, oats, barley;
- Cabbage, apples, carrots;
- Greens and berries.
It is necessary to exclude bakery products, fresh milk, pasta from the menu. Sausages, canned food, and animal fats supplement the "black" list. Rice is added to the listed useful cereals. The drinking regimen should be enhanced, this will help the intestines to quickly cleanse themselves of toxins. In addition to water, thirst can be quenched with cranberry juice, green tea with lemon, vegetable juices.
Alternative medicine against lamblia
What do herbalists and traditional healers offer for the treatment of lamblia in adults? Antiparasitic possibilities of the Monastery tea are actively discussed at thematic forums. The manufacturer assures that this herbal drink:
- Improves the function of the digestive tract;
- Actively fights parasites;
- Cleans the intestines from poisons;
- Strengthens the immune system;
- Blocks intestinal putrefaction;
- Stimulates the efficiency of the bile ducts;
- Neutralizes allergies.
The herbal tea contains birch buds, sage, wormwood, mint leaves, chamomile flowers, tansy inflorescences, yarrow. All ingredients are available, you can try to cook it yourself, but it is better to buy herbs at the pharmacy.
Phytotherapists have noticed that parasites are afraid of acids and offer drinks from cranberries and lemon, sauerkraut. Herbalists and disinfectant cultures are used.
Garlic-horseradish tincture. Peeled horseradish and garlic (in equal parts) are chopped with a blender. To 50 g of raw materials, add 0.5 liters of vodka. Kept closed for a week in a dark place. The filtered infusion is consumed in 1 tsp. 2 rubles / day in 30 minutes before meals, you can add a little water if the bitter drink has turned out.
- Pumpkin seeds. They are capable of destroying lamblia. To do this, you must immediately eat a glass of raw peeled seeds and not drink anything for at least 3 hours. The course is designed for 3 days. For quick removal of parasites, you can then use laxatives (in the evening).
- Rowan infusion. For one portion of the broth 1 tsp. dry berries are poured with boiling water (200 ml) and kept for 2 hours. Drink before meals (3 rubles / day), 100 ml.
Herbal tea. Combine cinquefoil, mint, immortelle and elecampane rhizome (equally). For one dose, 2 tbsp is enough. l. raw materials. Herbal tea is prepared in a half-liter thermos. The first time (15 minutes) it is not necessary to close it hermetically, then close it and leave to infuse overnight. Strained tea is drunk at 100 g 3 rubles / day.
- Medicinal infusion. The recipe is based on celandine herb, burnet root, alder cones, birch buds, burdock. All ingredients are needed in equal proportions. For one dose, you will need 2 tbsp. l. raw materials. The collection is brewed in a half-liter thermos, leaving it overnight. The filtered broth is taken in 50 ml 4 r. / Day. The course of treatment is 60 days.
Alternative methods can be used in consultation with the doctor as an additional therapy to relieve symptoms.
Strict adherence to hygiene standards will help prevent parasite infestation, it is not for nothing that giardiasis is called "the disease of dirty hands." The risk of infection is especially high in the summer.
- Wash your hands in a timely manner (when visiting the toilet, before eating);
- Raw vegetables and fruits should be washed in hot water;
- Drinking water should be purified, or better boiled;
- When swimming in reservoirs (especially with stagnant water), make sure that it does not get into your mouth;
- Conduct anthelmintic prophylaxis on pets, always wash your hands after such contact;
- Get rid of bad habits of biting nails or pencils;
- Try not to eat outside and do not allow children such snacks;
- Use gloves in summer cottages;
- Destroy insects - traditional carriers of infections in time;
- If one family member is diagnosed with giardiasis, preventive measures are necessary for the whole family and the immediate environment.
According to medical statistics, 15 to 40% of the world's population suffer from giardiasis. In our country, every second person carries various parasites. Over the past five years, the number of infected with lamblia has doubled. There is a misconception that giardiasis is a childhood disease.
Infectionists assure that both children and adults are equally susceptible to infection with protozoa. The infection is especially difficult to tolerate in old age, as well as in patients with weakened immunity. The danger of the disease is that the presence of parasites leads to pathological changes in the body.
The opinion of an expert parasitologist about lamblia - on video: