Table of contents:
- The main signs of chlamydia in women
- Chlamydia in women
- Infection routes
- Chlamydia in women causes
- Chlamydia in women. Symptoms
- Consequences of chlamydia in women
- Chlamydia in pregnant women
- How to identify chlamydia in women?
- Chlamydia treatment in women
Video: Chlamydia In Women - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment
The main signs of chlamydia in women
- 1 Chlamydia in women
- 2 Ways of infection
- 3 Chlamydia in women causes of
- 4 Chlamydia in women. Symptoms
- 5 Consequences of chlamydia in women
- 6 Chlamydia in pregnant women
- 7 How to identify chlamydia in women?
8 Treatment of chlamydia in women
- 8.1 Treatment regimen for chlamydia in women
- 8.2 Treatment of pregnant women
- 9 Prevention
Chlamydia is a rather serious sexually transmitted disease, the consequences and complications after which can be significant. To reduce the risk of complications, a competently structured, and, most importantly, timely treatment is required.
Chlamydia in women
Chlamydia in women
In women, chlamydia manifests itself in different ways. It all depends on the stage of the disease. Most often, the diagnosis of this disease occurs at the moment when the disease is in full swing. But in about every third case, she does not even let anyone know about herself. This course of the disease is even more dangerous, since it is difficult to suspect that something is going wrong in the body. Without knowing about health problems, a woman can infect a partner or even conceive a child.
In the case of an existing pregnancy, this state of affairs is no less serious. Lack of timely treatment can lead to irreparable consequences.
The incubation period of chlamydia in women lasts from two weeks to a month. If the infection is sexually transmitted, then after two weeks the first signs are likely to appear.
There are several stages in the development of the disease:
- First step. Chlamydia enters the vagina, in a comfortable environment for itself.
- Second phase. At this time, an intracellular stage of development occurs, at which the pathogenic microorganism begins to actively reproduce, and after a couple of days the cell in which it was located dies off.
- Stage three. The very period when there is an active growth of microorganisms. They spread rapidly and take over new cells.
The course of the disease in the future largely depends on how exactly the pathogenic microorganism entered a person. There are four main routes of infection:
- Sexual route. Most often, infection occurs in this way. The penetration of chlamydia becomes possible as a result of unprotected intercourse. Infection can occur as a result of any kind of intercourse: oral, anal and vaginal. With this path, the vaginal mucosa is primarily affected. From it, chlamydia easily enters the fallopian tubes, covering the entire surface. If you do not start treatment in time, the infection will spread to the urinary tract. The development of cystitis is quite likely.
- Vertical path. This is how the infection of a newborn baby occurs. If a woman suffered from chlamydia during pregnancy, a fairly large amount of pathogenic flora has accumulated in her vagina. During childbirth, the baby, passing through the birth canal, becomes infected from a sick mother. As a result, he may develop chlamydial conjunctivitis and lung damage. There is an opinion that even while in the womb, a child can already become infected with this infection. But the reliability of this hypothesis has not yet been proven.
- Contact-household way. No one can one hundred percent prove chlamydia infection in this way, but no one is able to deny the existence of such a path either. There is an opinion that this infection can be "picked up" from the clothes of a random oncoming person on the street, in public transport and just in the crowd. If you wipe yourself off with a towel after a sick person, the risk of infection is quite real, since the bacterium can live on cotton fabric for two days. But only if the ambient temperature corresponded to +18 degrees. Deviations in temperature by at least a degree or two are fraught with the death of the pathogenic microorganism.
- Airborne method. A rather rare way, but this is how chlamydia infection occurs from a patient with chlamydial pneumonia.
Chlamydia in women causes
Why is it possible to become infected with chlamydia in a woman?
- The main reason is promiscuous sex, unprotected sex (this is the most common cause of infection not only among women, but also among men);
- A spiral installed in the uterus, preventing unwanted pregnancy, can also cause this unpleasant disease;
- The cause of infection can be abortion and other gynecological operations;
- Due to non-compliance with the rules of personal hygiene, the likelihood of infection also exists.
Infection can occur against a background of reduced immunity, this can happen against the background of long antibiotic treatment. Stress conditions also do not improve immunity. Banal hypothermia leads to a violation of the immune system and an increase in its susceptibility to various kinds of infections, including chlamydia. Another common cause of decreased immunity is the lack of vitamins in the body.
Chlamydia in women. Symptoms
By and large, the symptoms of the disease may be completely absent, this is exactly what happens in about a third of cases. But if we talk about sensations, then the very first sign that something is going wrong in the body is burning, discomfort in the vaginal area.
If the infection has penetrated not only the vagina, but also the urinary tract, then cramps are noted during the trip to the toilet, and there is also clouding of urine. How long does chlamydia manifest in women? In about two weeks.
A little later, the following signs of chlamydia appear in women after infection. The amount of vaginal discharge becomes larger and yellowish in color. Bad smell should also tell you that something is wrong. Against the background of an ongoing infection, a low-grade fever may appear.
In the later period of the disease, when the pathogenic flora grows more and more, the uterus and its appendages are damaged. At this time, patients often complain of pulling pains in the lower abdomen and lower back. The pain makes itself felt during menstruation, increasing significantly. Increased physical activity does not pass without a trace, giving off severe pain in the abdomen.
If the disease proceeds over a significant period of time, there may be a violation of the endocrine function of the ovaries. At the same time, menstruation may change, become too profuse and painful, or, conversely, come to naught.
Consequences of chlamydia in women
A disease such as chlamydia cannot pass without consequences, and often very serious ones.
- Endometritis, salpingitis, salpingo-oophoritis. These diseases result from damage to the mucous membranes in the vagina, uterus, fallopian tubes and ovaries. All of them are treated, but there is no guarantee that the disease has passed without serious consequences. Scars may well remain in the tubes, which in the future can interfere with the desired pregnancy.
- As a result of the same scars in the fallopian tubes, the likelihood of an ectopic pregnancy is high.
- Infertility and the development of malignant tumors. Such a consequence is likely only as a result of too advanced chlamydia, which has not been diagnosed for a long time and has not been treated in any way.
- After suffering chlamydia, even in the case of a successful conception, there is no complete guarantee of a positive pregnancy outcome. The likelihood of premature birth increases several times.
Chlamydia in pregnant women
Just in case, in order to avoid problems in the future, an analysis for the presence of chlamydia and other sexually transmitted diseases must be passed before pregnancy. This should be done not only by the woman, but also by the man. If the infection is not detected in a timely manner, you can lose the fetus.
How to identify chlamydia in women?
How to identify chlamydia in women?
In order to make a conclusion about the presence of infection, it is necessary to carry out a set of tests. Only a comprehensive examination can give a complete picture of a woman's health status.
Microscopic analysis. First of all, a smear is taken from a woman, but not only from the vagina. Samples of the mucous membrane from the cervix and urethra will also be required. In some cases, rectal swabs are taken.
The samples taken are prepared in a special way and examined through a microscope.
The result of this study cannot be the ultimate truth, and if nothing was revealed in this way, this does not mean that the woman is absolutely healthy. The fact is that a conclusion can be made based on samples taken from one site. While the infection can develop safely on another.
The adequacy of the result also depends on the laboratory assistant conducting the research and the correctness of the sampling:
- PCR diagnostics. A fairly accurate method, it shows a positive result in the presence of infection and negative in its absence. In this case, not a smear is taken for analysis, but a scraping, which allows examining not only the mucous membrane, but also the cells. In most laboratories, this analysis is carried out in an automated way. This allows for better diagnostics. Human error has been reduced to zero.
- Bacteriological cultures. Samples of the mucous membrane are taken from the vagina, urethra, cervix and uterus itself. In the future, sowing is carried out on the flora, which shows whether there are pathogenic microorganisms in the body and in what quantity. In this way, you can immediately find out the sensitivity of bacteria to certain antibiotics.
- Blood test. According to this analysis, it is impossible to find the pathogen itself, but it is very possible to identify the amount of antibodies that the body secretes in a particular disease.
Chlamydia treatment in women
If the diagnosis is confirmed and the reality is that the woman is really sick with chlamydia, you need to start treatment. How to treat chlamydia in a woman? It should be borne in mind that treatment should be carried out not only with the partner, but also with her partner, otherwise the risk of recurrence of the infection remains.
Chlamydia is treated with antibiotics, otherwise it is impossible to overcome the disease. Basically antibiotics from three groups: tetracyclines, macrolides and fluoroquinolones. Unlike men, treatment for women is not limited to pills and ointments for external use. In the case of women, candles, tampons and douches should also be used. Only in this case, recovery will come faster, and the consequences will be minimal.
In each specific case, the selection of drugs and schemes for their use occurs individually. Medication can only be prescribed by a doctor based on research. In no case should you choose your own drugs. This can lead to negative reactions and unnecessary risks.
Chlamydia treatment regimen in women
If treatment is carried out at an early stage, then only topical preparations can be dispensed with. At this stage, vaginal suppositories, tampons are prescribed, and herbal douching is performed. To speed up recovery, you must definitely take a vitamin complex. Often at this time, plant-based adaptogens are prescribed, which strengthen the body.
The early stage of the disease is the first two months. Treatment is carried out at home, this condition does not require hospitalization. But taking antibiotics is also necessary. Without them, it is impossible to get rid of the pathogenic microorganism completely. True, from treatment at later stages, the course with antibacterial drugs will be less protracted.
Of the antibiotics, Doxycycline and Oxytetracycline are very effective in the fight against chlamydia - both drugs belong to the tetracyclines group. Often prescribed medications such as Erythromycin, both in tablets and in the form of an ointment, Azithromycin. These drugs are from the macrolide group. Medicines such as Levofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin and other representatives from the group of fluoroquinolones are rarely prescribed for the treatment of chlamydia at an early stage. They are prescribed only if the drugs from the two previous groups were powerless.
Azithromycin is very effective against a "fresh" infection. A single dose is quite enough for a complete cure of the disease.
Do not forget that antibiotics, even in small amounts, disrupt the balance of the intestinal microflora. Therefore, after an antibacterial course, a course of probiotics is required.
If you do not start treatment on time, then the disease becomes chronic. Therapy at this stage becomes much more complicated and requires more time and effort.
Treatment at this stage is carried out in several stages. The first step is to prepare the body, which allows for more effective treatment in the future.
Most often, a course of intramuscular injections is carried out as a preparation. A weekly course of Neovir or Cycloferon have antimycotic and antiviral effects. In addition to injections, a course of tablets is prescribed, for example, Rovamycin. This antibiotic belongs to the group of macrolides and, according to its characteristics, is perfectly combined with Neovir, complementing it.
To make it easier for the body to endure such an amount of antibacterial drugs, Diflucan is prescribed at the end of each week of treatment. Also, the complex must be supplemented with multivitamins, Suprastin is perfect for the role of such in the treatment of chlamydia, any other analogs may well be suitable.
After the completion of the first stage, a dense work on the rehabilitation of the body begins. The drugs and dosage regimens are completely changing.
At this stage, the first step is to restore the vaginal microflora. Therefore, at this stage, vaginal suppositories are indispensable. Lactobacterin based on live lactobacilli is able to completely restore the disturbed mucous membrane and normalize the processes during the course. These candles help to restore the body's immunity.
To help the immune system recover and prevent relapses, in tandem with Lactobacterin, a course of injections is carried out that help the body to conduct a quality fight against viruses and infections. Cycloferon, Reaferon or Interlock are perfect for the role of such fighters. It is permissible to prescribe drugs such as Wobenzym and Phlogenzym. The last two drugs are often combined with the main drugs, helping to avoid pathologies and complications.
During this period, the use of Clindamycin is very effective, it has established itself in the fight against chlamydial infections, it helps even if the virus has settled in the respiratory tract and bone tissues. If the infection is severe enough, at first it is necessary to prescribe the drug in the form of injections, since in this form antibiotics work faster and more effectively. On the tenth day of treatment maximum, it is necessary to switch to the tablet form of this drug.
Treatment of pregnant women
Treatment of pregnant women
In the event that a woman infected with chlamydia is pregnant, the treatment is built according to a completely different scheme. Prescribe drugs so that they do not have a negative effect on the fetus.
Since it will not be possible to build quality treatment without antibiotics, and most antibacterial drugs are contraindicated for pregnant women, women in the position are prescribed antibiotics with a molecular weight greater than the placenta can pass through itself.
If the disease is at an early stage, then one course will be enough for a complete cure. If the disease has already started and requires treatment in several stages, then there must be a break between courses of antibiotics. The courses themselves should not be longer than two weeks in duration. During the pause, you need to let the body restore the microflora and strengthen the immune system.
In order for the body to feel less interference from antibiotics in complex therapy, it is imperative to introduce immunomodulatory drugs, vitamins and enzymes. In some cases, the course does not require constant intake of antibiotics, single doses of antibiotics are quite enough.
During pregnancy, drugs such as Amoxicillin, Ofloxacin and Viferon are well suited for treating chlamydia. These medicines are able not only to actively fight infections, including chlamydia, but also to help restore immunity.
If there are contraindications to these drugs or intolerance to tetracycline, there are analogues of these drugs among the macrolide group. So, Erythromycin may well act as a drug. Its reception is carried out for two weeks, sometimes 10 days of treatment is enough. Josamycin and Wilprafen are also fine. They are taken for 10 days.
In the case of chlamydia, like other sexually transmitted infections, predominantly sexually transmitted, everything is simple. To minimize the likelihood of infection, you should not have promiscuous sex, enter into casual relationships. Always use mechanical protection - condoms. It is worth remembering that the latter does not give a 100% guarantee, so you should regularly visit the gynecologist's office, taking tests for all kinds of viruses.