Toxocariasis In Children - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

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Toxocariasis In Children - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment
Toxocariasis In Children - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Toxocariasis In Children - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

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Video: Toxocariasis 2023, February
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The main symptoms and methods of treatment of children's toxocariasis

Content

  • 1 Symptoms in children
  • 2 The most common and striking signs
  • 3 Disease therapy

Human parasitic disease is called toxocariasis. It affects both adults and children, but it is more often diagnosed in young patients. The infection is in soil and contaminated water, where animal feces enter. There are two types of toxocars: parasites of dogs and a separate group that lives in the body of cats. If the first symptoms are noticeable, treatment should be immediate and carried out only under the supervision of the attending physician.

Symptoms in children

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Symptoms in children

After numerous studies, it was found that at a younger age, children suffer from pronounced symptoms of toxocariasis, but after 12 years, the signs of the disease are slightly erased. Teenagers barely feel the problem. The clinical picture of the disease will largely depend on the form of the disease and the affected organ.

If the child has a strong immune system, the pathogen may simply be present, in no way identifying itself. When the larvae begin to move, infect different organs, the baby's defenses attack a foreign body, which causes the development of allergic reactions. Therefore, patients often have rash and Quincke's edema.

A skin reaction occurs anywhere, and the area of ​​the body will itch a lot. Outwardly, such a place looks like a mosquito bite, it has the shape of a ring. Edema occurs on the soft cervical tissues, which in severe cases turns into choking. This is one of the most severe symptoms of the body's response to illness. If medical assistance is not provided on time, a lethal outcome is possible.

Sometimes the disease is accompanied by attacks of bronchial asthma. It is easy to recognize: the baby has a frequent dry cough with little sputum. If you listen to the nature of his breathing, you can hear wheezing and noise.

There are such types of toxocariasis:

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  1. Skin form;
  2. Visceral;
  3. Neurological;
  4. Ocular.

The first type is characterized by the penetration of toxocarase larvae into the dermis. A child with this diagnosis feels unpleasant itching and burning. Sometimes children complain of movement under the skin. Such a place can be seen with the naked eye, as it will surely become inflamed. It is there that the larva is located.

The second visceral type of the disease involves the penetration of the pathogen into various internal organs of the baby. This can be the liver, pancreas or intestines, brain, lungs. Signs of the presence of larvae in each of them will acquire a special color and clinical picture.

For example, with damage to the digestive tract, the child experiences the following symptoms:

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  • Bitter taste in the mouth;
  • Pain syndrome that is localized in the navel;
  • Appetite problem;
  • Nausea and vomiting;
  • Decrease in body weight;
  • Flatulence.

They diagnose toxocariasis in children in the lungs, which can be fraught with the development of bronchial asthma or pneumonia. With this type of lesion, the following symptoms are observed:

  • Breathing becomes difficult;
  • There is a dry cough;
  • Shortness of breath is possible.

An infection of the heart and its valves is considered a serious form of infection. If a child has toxocariasis of the right half of the organ, you can notice swelling of the legs, which will be pronounced. In this case, the baby is immediately hospitalized. Symptoms of larval settling in the heart valves:

  1. Persistent cough;
  2. Shortness of breath also appears at rest;
  3. Blue nasolabial triangle, skin and limbs.

When the brain is infected, when toxocars penetrate into the lining of the brain, the symptoms and treatment will have a slightly different nature:

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  1. Headache;
  2. Convulsions, paresis or paralysis (focal lesion of the brain of the head);
  3. Dizziness;
  4. Loss of balance.

In rare cases, ocular toxocariasis occurs, and symptoms in children usually appear in one eye. Since often only one individual of the parasite penetrates there, it can be seen with the naked eye. In this case, the baby will be able to feel the following signs of the disease:

  1. Bulging of the eyeball;
  2. Stirring and pain syndrome;
  3. Deterioration of vision, which can lead to complete blindness;
  4. Conjunctival hyperemia.

The most common and striking signs

In the presence of toxocar in children, it is often difficult to immediately correctly diagnose. A child can be treated by different specialists for several years without obtaining the desired effect of recovery. Only a blood test can give an accurate picture, because the number of eosinophils and total immunoglobulin E will be increased in patients. In rare cases, the larvae are visible in the sputum.

At home, it is difficult for parents to diagnose toxocariasis, because not everyone knows what it is, whether it happens in children. But there is a list of basic and common signs. Among them are the following:

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  1. Bowel problems, as the microflora is disturbed;
  2. No soreness of enlarged lymph nodes;
  3. Elevated temperature (37-38 0 С);
  4. The child does not want to eat;
  5. Complains of headaches, weakness;
  6. A persistent dry cough is noticeable;
  7. The kid often suffers from infectious diseases.

Ailment therapy

Treatment of toxocariasis in children depends on the form of the disease, the focus of inflammation and the severity of development. Most often, doctors use drug therapy, which gives a favorable outcome. The course of treatment sometimes has to be repeated several times. The smallest patients under the age of 3 years are sent to inpatient therapy.

Common and effective medicines:

  1. Albendazole. The course of treatment is 2-3 weeks with two pills at a dosage of 0.01 g for each 1 kg of the child's weight. Side effects are possible, but rarely appear: nausea and dizziness, headache, hyperthermia.
  2. Mintezol. They are prescribed by weight, therefore, they count on 0.025 g for each kg with a duration of 1 week or 10 days. The drug is distinguished by the presence of side reactions: headache and abdominal discomfort, nausea, desire to sleep and lack of appetite.
  3. Vermox. With the help of this medication, doctors prescribe a long course of treatment, which can take up to a month in time. The dosage is calculated according to the weight: 0.01 g of the drug is given for each kg. Differs in rare manifestations of side effects.
  4. Ditrazine citrate. He has the same long course of treatment as the previous drug. The dosage is somewhat different, because this agent is prescribed 0.002 g for each kg of weight. Side effects: headache, hyperthermia and nausea.

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    Albendazole

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    Mintezol

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    Vermox

If children are diagnosed with toxocariasis, the treatment will be long. In addition, the patient will be monitored for the next 3 years after recovery, therefore, self-medication is strictly prohibited. With such a disease, it is necessary to constantly carry out tests and monitor the baby's condition, since against the background of symptomatic treatment and taking anthelmintic medications, the child may develop allergic reactions.

For the complete recovery of the child after the treatment of toxocariasis, it is imperative to give him drugs that normalize the intestinal microflora. Doctors usually prescribe hepatoprotectors or probiotics (Linex, Bifidum Forte). Since the larvae leave the waste of their vital activity in the body - toxins, it is necessary to cleanse the tissues from them, improve its health. For this, adsorbents are used in treatment. The most common representatives are Enterol and Smecta.

If toxocariasis with vivid symptoms is detected, treatment in children should be aimed at reducing the signs of the disease. To remove an allergic rash, edema or other manifestations, you can use antihistamines: Zodak or Zyrtec. If the baby is in serious condition, he is injected with glucocorticosteroids, electrolytes. Among antipyretics, doctors choose Ibuprofen or Paracetamol. But Papaverine will help to cope with abdominal pain.

In order to respond to possible problems in time, the child will be placed on a dispensary record, calling monthly for an ELISA control and a blood test. The treatment regimen for toxocariasis is quite simple, but it must be prescribed by a doctor after carrying out appropriate tests and examinations. In some cases, the patient can be sent for consultation to an ophthalmologist, surgeon or other narrow specialist, which depends on the focus of manifestation.

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