Dysentery Amoeba - What Is It, Signs, Symptoms And Treatment

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Dysentery Amoeba - What Is It, Signs, Symptoms And Treatment
Dysentery Amoeba - What Is It, Signs, Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Dysentery Amoeba - What Is It, Signs, Symptoms And Treatment

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Video: Amebiasis (Amoebic Dysentery) | Entamoeba histolytica, Pathogenesis, Signs & Symptoms, Treatment 2023, February
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What is dysentery amoeba and how does it develop in the human body

Content

  • 1 Varieties of dysentery amoeba
  • 2 Ways of infection
  • 3 The mechanism of development of the disease
  • 4 Symptoms
  • 5 Diagnostics
  • 6 Treatment
  • 7 Methods of alternative treatment
  • 8 Preventive measures
  • 9 Complications

Dysenteric amoeba is the simplest parasite that causes amoebiasis. Studies have shown that the pathogen can live exclusively in the human body. When there are too many parasites, a person begins to feel serious deviations in the work of the body. The disease may not manifest itself for a long period of time, causing severe intestinal and non-intestinal damage.

Varieties of dysentery amoeba

Studies have shown that dysentery amoeba, like many other parasites, has only two forms of its vital activity: active and sleeping. According to the ICD, the pathology is coded A06, the subheadings are A06.0-A06.9. The following forms of dysentery amoeba are distinguished:

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  • The active form is trophozoites, which grow, develop and multiply;
  • Large vegetative - the largest amoeba, in which the core is not considered;
  • Tissue - it is diagnosed exclusively in the acute phase, as well as in the most damaged tissues (necrosis forms around them with a large accumulation of purulent masses);
  • Lumen - the internal intestinal cavity is damaged, everything proceeds without distinctive symptoms;
  • The precyst is a transitional stage in which the amoeba can reach sizes up to 18 microns;
  • The histological form - the amoeba is covered with a dense membrane, due to which it loses the ability to move.

Infection routes

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Infection routes

Man is the source of infection. In the course of his life, he releases amoeba and cysts into the external environment in a vegetative form. Most often, people who suffer from chronic or acute forms of amebiasis become the spread of infection. In such a case, the sick person can spread over several years. Studies have shown that in one day, an infected person can release more than 900 million individual cysts into the environment. It should be borne in mind that people suffering from acute dysentery amoeba are not sources of infection.

Most often, people become infected by contact when they touch food or the internal environment of a person with dirty hands. This is usually due to unwashed hands. Also, things, linen, dirty dishes and much more are very dangerous. Flies and cockroaches can also spread the infection.

Studies have shown that in the vast majority of cases, this disease affects people aged 20-50 years. Even after the first infection, immunity to the disease is not developed.

The mechanism of development of the disease

Once in the human body, cysts penetrate into the large intestine, where they turn into dysentery amoeba. They can live in it long enough without causing any harm to humans. In this case, the infected becomes a carrier and distributor of the infection. When a person's protective functions are weakened: he begins to starve, worry, get sick, cysts begin to behave aggressively. They begin to attach to the intestinal walls, which is why they turn into a tissue form. The walls themselves gradually collapse, small passages appear in them, and eventually ulcers.

Ulcers in the colon may be perforated, causing complete perforation. In this case, the entire contents of the intestine fills the abdominal cavity, which leads to the development of severe complications. Also, ulcers can affect large blood vessels, which opens up massive bleeding. In the most severe stages, the parasites affect the brain and lungs, causing large abscesses to form.

Symptoms

It is enough work to determine the manifestations of dysentery amoeba in the initial stages. For 3-6 weeks, while the incubation period lasts, the pathology does not manifest itself in any way. In the initial stages, the disease can be easily confused with bacterial dysentery. The signs of this condition can be recognized by the following manifestations:

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  • General weakness, decreased performance;
  • Jelly-like consistency of feces;
  • Diarrhea with blood impurities;
  • Increasing abdominal pain;
  • Meteorism;
  • Frequent false urge to defecate.

After some time, the symptoms of pathology in humans begin to increase. First of all, the patient is faced with loose stools, which pursues him several times a day. If you do not take action on time, the frequency of urge to use the toilet can increase from 20 times a day. Over time, cramping pains increase, which significantly increase during bowel movements. Due to the large number of parasites, ulcers can develop on the intestinal walls, leading to peritonitis. All this leads to dehydration of the body, weakening of its defenses. The chronic form of infection with dysentery amoeba can be recognized by the following manifestations:

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  • Meteorism;
  • A thick whitish coating on the tongue and bitterness in the mouth;
  • A drawn-in tense abdomen, tenderness on palpation;
  • Dramatic weight loss against the background of frequent bowel movements;
  • Pale skin;
  • Hair loss and brittle nails;
  • Appetite disorders;
  • Sleep problems;
  • Tachycardia and muffled heartbeat;
  • Enlargement of the liver in size;
  • Increased body temperature;
  • Nausea and vomiting.

In people with low immune capacities or in the younger age group, intestinal amebiasis manifests itself extremely quickly. In the process of vital activity of pathogenic microorganisms, paresis and ulcers appear on the intestines, which causes peritonitis. It is because of its rapid development that dysentery amoeba causes deaths.

Diagnostics

Dysentery amoeba can be diagnosed, however, multiple tests are required. First of all, the patient is sent for a general blood test. In it, ESR is decisive, an increased level of which indicates an inflammatory process. Further, parasitological studies are carried out, such as:

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  • Stool analysis - this is how it is possible to diagnose large forms or tissue infection.
  • Sputum analysis - the contents of abscesses, ulcer bottom materials are studied.

Keep in mind that it is necessary to take material for analysis of feces 10-15 minutes after defecation. It is best to give patients a dose of a saline laxative. The feces are examined both in processed and fixed form. In some cases, the bodies are cultured in a nutrient medium. Additionally, a serological study is carried out. The most indicative in this case is the fluorescent body test, as well as the complement binding reaction. If diagnosis is difficult, the specialist will be able to infect the experimental animal with a certain amount of material. Additionally appointed:

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  • Sigmoidoscopy - examination of the rectum and sigmoid colon;
  • Ultrasound - allows you to assess the condition of the liver and other internal organs;
  • Computed tomography - allows you to determine the size of pathological inclusions, as well as their exact location;
  • Irrigoscopy - a procedure in which an X-ray machine evaluates the condition of the colon;
  • Microresonan tomography - for diagnosing debilitated patients;
  • Radioisotope methods are used to differentiate amoebic abscess and bacterial.

Treatment

Be sure to consult your doctor for an accurate diagnosis and determination of the most effective treatment method. It is strictly forbidden to ignore the pathology or engage in its therapy on your own. This can lead to extremely serious consequences and even death. Usually, the following drugs are used as drug therapy:

  • Antibiotics of the tetracyclines class - Yatren, Diiodquinone, Hiniofon. They are designed to suppress luminal amoebas. The drugs also show their effectiveness in identifying the chronic form of the disease, as well as in the carrier of the infection.
  • Hingamin, Emetin, Dehydroemetin, Ambilgar are drugs that cleanse tissues inside the body from parasites. The medicine is prescribed for the acute nature of the symptoms, as well as for extraintestinal amebiasis.

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    Hingamin

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    Emetine

  • Universal drugs - Tinidazole, Furamid, Flagil - affect the cellular level of the body, kill all forms of dysentery amoebas.

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    Tinidazole

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    Furamid

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    Flagil

Keep in mind that when choosing a particular drug, the attending specialist pays attention to many features of the course. It is also necessary to take into account the age and body weight of the person. All pills against worms have an extremely powerful effect, if used incorrectly, they can easily disrupt the work of the whole body. It is for this reason that during treatment it is recommended to take various probiotics and prebiotics that restore bowel function. If necessary, it is recommended to take hepatoprotectors, immunostimulants and cardiovascular drugs.

Alternative treatment methods

Today, there are a huge number of methods for alternative treatment of dysentery amoeba. Almost all recipes came to us from China, where this pathology is highly prevalent. The most commonly used medications are:

  • Take 100 grams of sea buckthorn and pour 2 cups of boiling water over it. Leave the infusion, then strain and drink 100 ml 3 times a day for a week.
  • Pour 40 grams of garlic with 100 ml of vodka and leave to infuse for a week. Take 10 drops, 3 times a day, half an hour before meals.

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    Sea buckthorn

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    Garlic

  • In equal parts, mix common spruce, meadow clover, marsh cranberries and Siberian fir. Grind the components thoroughly, then pour 1 tablespoon with a liter of water and leave to infuse for a day in a dark place. Take the medication 100 ml before each meal for a week.

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    Spruce

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    Clover

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    Cranberry

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    Fir

Preventive measures

Full compliance with all preventive measures will help reduce the risk of dysentery amoeba. This will help bring the risk of contracting an infection to almost zero. Moreover, people who live in countries with a warm and humid climate or with an unfavorable epidemiological situation should undergo chemoprophylaxis from time to time. Also, remember to follow these rules:

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  • Drink only clean bottled water;
  • Remember to wash vegetables and fruits before eating;
  • Process food thoroughly over a fire;
  • Disinfect sanitary surfaces with special agents;
  • Avoid contact with stray pets;
  • Eat correctly and in a balanced manner;
  • Spend as much time as possible in the fresh air;
  • Give up all bad habits;
  • Get tested regularly;
  • Refuse to eat in untrustworthy cafes;
  • Take vitamin complexes every spring and fall.

Complications

Dysentery amoeba requires immediate and comprehensive treatment. Otherwise, you run the risk of facing serious complications. Most often, pathology causes the following pathologies in the human body:

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  • Appendicitis;
  • Peritonitis;
  • Perforation.
  • Narrowing of the intestinal lumen;
  • Intestinal intolerance;
  • Pericarditis;
  • Anemia;
  • Perihepatitis;
  • Pleurisy.

Also, the lack of full treatment for dysentery amoeba can lead to hormonal imbalance. In the most dangerous cases, death can occur. In order to accurately protect your body from serious pathologies, you must take a responsible approach to drug therapy.

It is also necessary to undergo an extended diagnostic examination, which will also determine the direction of treatment.

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