Chronic Toxoplasmosis - Signs, Symptoms And Treatment

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Chronic Toxoplasmosis - Signs, Symptoms And Treatment
Chronic Toxoplasmosis - Signs, Symptoms And Treatment
Video: Chronic Toxoplasmosis - Signs, Symptoms And Treatment
Video: Toxoplasmosis | Acquired vs Congenital | Signs, Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment 2023, February
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How to beat chronic toxoplasmosis

Content

  • 1 Ways of spread of the disease
  • 2 How is Toxoplasma diagnosed?
  • 3 Symptoms of toxoplasmosis

    3.1 Personality change

  • 4 Features of therapy and treatment of toxoplasmosis

    4.1 Use of the drug for latent toxoplasmosis

  • 5 Health secret in prevention!
  • 6 Fun facts: what is important to know?

Toxoplasma gondii are the causative agents of one of the most common diseases, which are characterized by parasitic effects. This is a chronic toxoplasmosis, which has a destructive effect on the body, gradually affecting several body systems, including the nervous, muscular, and lymphatic systems. Pathogenic microorganisms also adversely affect the condition of the liver, eyes, heart, spleen. The disease is quite easy to diagnose, but sometimes it takes a long time to treat.

Disease spread

Direct infection can result from such factors:

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  • Failure to comply with basic hygiene rules - hand washing;
  • Direct contact with an infected animal - a cat, as well as cleaning its toilet;
  • Transplantation of organs infected with toxoplasma;
  • Eating low-quality products that have not undergone proper heat treatment;
  • Contact with raw meat, processing it, which was not accompanied by subsequent hand washing;
  • Transfusion of infected blood;
  • Infection of the fetus in the womb.

How is toxoplasma diagnosed?

Only laboratory tests can confirm the presence / absence of Toxoplasma in humans. During the conversation with the attending physician, such important factors as: the profession, the patient's eating habits, and the presence of direct contact with cats are taken into account. Laboratory research can be carried out in two ways:

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  • Parasitological - based on bioassay, for which histological examinations of the damaged organ, taking a smear from the lymph nodes and tonsils can be carried out;
  • Immunological - this type of analysis is used quite often, they make it possible with a high degree of probability to determine the presence or absence of the disease.

In some cases, chronic toxoplasmosis symptoms of the disease can be detected.

Symptoms of toxoplasmosis

Doctors distinguish between several forms of the disease, among which are not only chronic, but also acute, acquired and congenital. Each form has its own symptomatology. Infection with acquired toxoplasmosis can occur from domestic or outdoor animals - cats. In this case, the incubation period is often extended over two weeks. At this time, a person may suffer from joint pain, general weakness, apathy and discomfort. Other signs are characteristic of the acute form:

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  • Chills;
  • A rash that spreads to almost the entire body, excluding only the feet, scalp, palms,
  • increased body temperature;
  • Swollen lymph nodes.

A full examination will reveal other signs of the disease, including disorders in the work of the heart, nervous system, and lungs. For acute toxoplasmosis, an enlarged liver and spleen are characteristic features, as well as the development of myocarditis. Often the acute form becomes chronic. And this type of pathology is already much more difficult to identify.

The most common symptoms of chronic toxoplasmosis in humans are irritability, frequent nervous breakdowns, fatigue, gastrointestinal disorders (nausea, bloating, constipation), and vegetative dystonia. Since the same symptoms are characteristic of a number of other diseases, toxoplasmosis can be detected after a number of laboratory tests - polymerase chain reaction of blood (PCR).

Personality change

The pathogen itself - Toxoplasma - is very small in size. However, even such insignificant parameters, when exacerbated, can affect the behavior of its owner, which can be both an animal and a person. If changes in behavior have already occurred, then even after a complete cure and removal of cysts from the body, they will not disappear anywhere. And this feature is directly related to the life of Toxoplasma.

If we consider behavioral changes in the example of a rat afflicted with a disease, then Toxoplasma literally forces the animal into the mouth of its natural enemy - the cat. And this is due to the fact that the microorganism destroys the fear of a predator. A person can also undergo certain personal changes, which will manifest themselves in:

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  • Unjustified risk and inhibited reactions, especially concerning the hazard.
  • For men, a loss of interest in new things is characteristic, which eventually develops into conservatism (women become overly outspoken, even those who in the past were quiet and secretive ladies);
  • Persistent neurotic disorders, which manifest themselves in unjustified fear, self-criticism, and anxiety.

There is also the opinion of the American psychiatrist Edwin Tory that Toxoplasma gradually damages neuroglial cells in the brain. It is these changes that are characteristic of people who suffer from schizophrenia.

Some doctors believe that the chronic form of Toxoplasma can lead to serious mental disorders. An extra proof of this fact is the mass of blood tests performed for schizophrenics. Their antibodies to toxoplasmosis are much higher than normal.

Features of therapy and treatment of toxoplasmosis

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Features of therapy and treatment of toxoplasmosis

The overwhelming majority of doctors are firmly convinced that it is simply impossible to completely get rid of pathogens. Together with them, antibodies remain in the body for life. However, in some cases, doctors still advise resorting to conservative treatment in order to avoid serious consequences and complications. Treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis is carried out with a complex of drugs:

  • Antiviral, antiparasitic, antifungal drugs;
  • Macrolides are a group of antibiotics that is also used in the standard treatment regimen (most often Spiramycin and Clarithromycin are included in the therapy).

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    Spiromycin

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    Clarithromycin

Additionally, other drugs may also be prescribed (depending on the patient's condition and the characteristics of the course of the disease): "Sulfadimezin", "Pyrimethamine". However, self-medication is completely ruled out, since it is forbidden to take a complex of drugs without a well-confirmed diagnosis. Medicine has found a lot of ways to perfectly cope with the disease, including its acute form. Many treatment regimens will include antibiotics and chemotherapy.

The treatment regimen will be different in each case! Often the chronic form of toxoplasmosis is not treated at all, however, there are a number of exceptions, which include planned pregnancy and vision problems.

Drug use for latent toxoplasmosis

Often, experts place considerable emphasis on taking immunomodulatory drugs, which can significantly alleviate the patient's condition. This approach is considered justified, since in this case, in most cases, it is possible to exclude the clinical manifestations of the disease. The weak course of the disease becomes the reason for the appointment of such a complex of drugs:

  • Folic acid;
  • Pyramethamine;
  • Sulfadiazine.

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    Pyramethamine

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    Sulfadiazine

You need to take such drugs for quite a long time. Sometimes the treatment process is delayed for months, may exceed a year. Complex therapy shows excellent results. Studies show that in 90% of cases, a lasting recovery occurs. This result can be achieved through the use of vitamin complexes, antihistamines, etiotropic, fortifying drugs.

In addition to these agents, leukopoiesis stimulants and vaccinations can be prescribed. It is important to understand that self-administration of funds is strictly prohibited. Only the doctor, after a thorough study of the medical history and receiving a number of laboratory tests, makes a decision on the appointment / exclusion of drugs. This is due to the fact that the symptoms of toxoplasmosis are in many ways similar to the manifestation of other ailments, for which a completely different treatment will be effective.

Some doctors are generally sure that toxoplasmosis should be treated only in case of an exacerbation of the disease. In a chronic or latent form, no manipulations will be effective, and therefore there is simply no need for them.

The secret of health is prevention

Precautions can prevent the appearance of not only toxoplasmosis, but also a number of other diseases. Often it is prevention that becomes the tool that helps prevent the development of the disease. In order not to become a victim of Toxoplasma for yourself and your children, you must take it as a rule:

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  • Wash hands thoroughly, especially after visiting a public toilet, crowded places, or contact with animals. Hands should also be washed after contact with pets or outdoor animals, including beloved cats, rats, etc.
  • All vegetables, fruits purchased or grown in the home garden, as well as purchased meat, fish, eggs must be carefully processed. Toxoplasma dies only during prolonged cooking, stewing, frying.
  • After washing, thoroughly disinfect the litter boxes. After such a procedure, you need to wash your hands well with soap and water.
  • After picnics in nature, walking in the woods, swimming in public ponds, sitting on the ground, you should not only wash yourself, but also handle things well - wash them and iron them with an iron.

The issue of children's hygiene is also important. The younger generation should be taught to be clean and tidy from an early age. It should be explained to the child that after playing in the sandbox, picking mushrooms, walking, playing with animals, you should thoroughly wash your hands.

Interesting facts: what is important to know?

The discovery of Toxoplasma was made in 1908, and a scientific revolution was made at once by several scientists in different parts of the world - in Italy, Africa, France. The first identified carriers were the gondii rodents (the second part of the name was given precisely by the name of this animal - "gondii") and rabbits. And only five years later it was proved that Toxoplasma can cause the development of the disease in humans. Statistics have proven that:

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  • Every third inhabitant of the Earth has become a carrier of the disease;
  • Every fifth compatriot carries a parasite - toxoplasma;
  • Most often, it is women who become infected. Men do not get sick so often;
  • In Africa, one in ten people are infected;
  • The frequency of infection among pregnant women is low - up to 1%.

Chronic toxoplasmosis is an imperceptible disease that rarely makes itself felt. However, frequent mood swings, incomprehensible allergic manifestations can be reasons for contacting a doctor. At the reception, you should draw the attention of a specialist to the fact that there are cats or rodents in the house. It is this fact that often becomes the reason for the appointment of appropriate studies, and after them to prescribe adequate treatment.

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