Negleria Fowler Is A Species Of Unicellular Eukaryotic From A To Z

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Negleria Fowler Is A Species Of Unicellular Eukaryotic From A To Z
Negleria Fowler Is A Species Of Unicellular Eukaryotic From A To Z

Video: Negleria Fowler Is A Species Of Unicellular Eukaryotic From A To Z

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Brain eating Amoeba #Naegleria Fowleri (English) 2023, February
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How to detect Negleria Fowler at an early stage and which treatment is most effective

Content

  • 1 Life cycle
  • 2 Ways of infection
  • 3 Symptoms
  • 4 Diagnosing the problem
  • 5 Treatment

Negleria Fowler is recognized as the most dangerous parasitic organism known to modern medicine at the moment. Negleria got its name from the scientist Malcolm Fowler who discovered it.

The parasite is a unicellular amoeba that, penetrating the human body, is capable of provoking a serious disease, non-heriosis. Patients are diagnosed with eye problems, ulcerative lesions appear, and the central nervous system suffers. If drug treatment is started out of time, death is possible.

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Today we will talk about what Fowler's nongleria is, what environment it lives in, and what symptoms it manifests itself in when infected.

The main habitat of the parasite is water bodies, the temperature in which ranges from 25 to 32 degrees Celsius. Such bodies of water include hot springs, city pools, where the rules for water purification are ignored, and wastewater accumulations. The water can be infested with the parasite to a greater or lesser extent.

Life cycle

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The amoebic parasite is the simplest single-celled free-living organism. The pest has a nucleus and pseudopods. It belongs to the type of facultative parasites - it is able to inhabit both the host's body and the environment.

Reproduction of amoeba is possible in the human body or in a reservoir if the water temperature rises to 35 degrees.

Some species of amoeba are able to change their body with sudden changes in environmental conditions - they form several flagella, with the help of which they can actively move to preserve life.

If environmental conditions become unsuitable for the continued existence of the amoeba, the parasite becomes covered with a strong shell. In this form, the microorganism is able to stay for quite a long time. After normalization of conditions, the amoeba is easily released from the shell and returns to normal existence.

It is extremely dangerous when a body of water infected with parasites dries up. Neglerium cysts are easily carried by air, which significantly increases the area of ​​infection. In favorable conditions, amoebas begin to actively reproduce and increase their population.

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Infection routes

Since the amoeba predominantly lives in the aquatic environment, you can catch it by swimming in warm water bodies, especially if the parasite is in the flagellar stage of development.

Amoeba most often enters the human body through the nose. The parasite easily penetrates the olfactory epithelium, invades the olfactory nerve, and through it enters the brain directly. If the parasite experiences adverse conditions in the form of cysts, airborne infection is possible through inhalation of contaminated air.

Negleria Fowler is mainly localized in the tissues of the brain and the vascular system. Favorable conditions are created in the human body, therefore the parasite begins to actively multiply and increase its number.

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The further development of the disease provokes constant hemorrhages in the brain, leads to the formation of necrotic areas in the gray and white medulla, causes amoebic meningoencephalitis.

Symptoms

The first symptoms in an infected person begin to appear 2-3 days after infection, sometimes the incubation period extends to 7-15 days. The first symptoms appear rather abruptly and suddenly and cause a worsening of the patient's condition.

The primary symptoms of amoeba infection include a feeling of weakness throughout the body, problems with smell and taste buds, up to a complete loss of taste and smell, and severe pain in the head.

Negleria Fowler causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in the patient. As soon as the parasite enters the brain, it begins to provoke necrosis of the white and gray matter of the brain, due to the high activity of the amoeba, constant hemorrhages are observed. The disease is constantly progressing, therefore, in 90% of cases, infection with amoeba ends in the death of the patient.

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The symptoms of a parasite infection are very similar to meningitis, so when the first signs of illness appear, you should immediately contact your doctor. Diagnostics should be performed by medical professionals with the utmost care in order to exclude other similar problems.

Amoebic meningitis is characterized by:

  • Severe headache;
  • Feverish condition, an increase in body temperature up to 40 degrees and above;
  • Nausea and vomiting;
  • Ulcerative lesions appear on the mucous membranes of the nose and mouth;
  • In advanced cases, breathing problems associated with pulmonary edema may occur;
  • Convulsions, loss of consciousness, paralysis of the limbs are possible;
  • The normal functioning of the taste buds is disrupted.

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With the further development of the disease, the patient develops persistent hallucinations, blood pressure rises sharply, fainting and loss of consciousness, coma are possible

Damage to the medulla causes coordination problems, the eyes move in a chaotic manner. The main sign of meningitis is the constant tipping of the head back. Remember that infection occurs directly through the air containing amoeba cysts or through contaminated water, it is impossible to catch the disease from a sick person.

The patient's condition worsens before our eyes, sometimes death occurs within a few days. Death is most often caused by complete respiratory arrest due to lung damage. Coma are possible.

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Diagnosing the problem

The main danger of contracting Fowler's Negleria is that the disease is difficult to diagnose. The difficulties are due to the fact that the parasite does not cause specific symptoms, and therefore the disease is often confused with meningitis and meningoencephalitis, starting antibacterial or antiviral treatment that does not bring the desired result.

When making a diagnosis, the doctor must establish whether there was a history of swimming in warm polluted water or contact with sewage. To identify the amoeba, the cerebrospinal fluid obtained by biopsy is examined. Negleria Fowler leads a more mobile lifestyle, so it can be found among other cells.

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Another way to detect the parasite is the culture method. Water is added to the cerebrospinal fluid samples, as a result of which nongleria begins to form flagellated life forms. The method allows you to distinguish the parasite from acanthameb.

Treatment

There is currently no specific treatment regimen for the parasite. Basically, doctors use a wide range of drugs (anticonvulsants, glucocorticoids, etc.) to eliminate symptoms.

At the moment, the only drug that can save the life of a patient infected with an amoeba is amphocetrin B. The drug is effective only if treatment was started immediately after infection. As mentioned above, in 90% of cases, the amoeba of nongleria becomes the cause of death, while those taking the drug survived after infection with the parasite.

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When the vital activity of the parasite has led to lesions of the central nervous system, it is difficult to talk about a favorable outcome of events.

Negleria Fowler is not a very common parasite, however, it is advisable to follow a number of preventive measures that will help avoid infection:

  1. In hot seasons, avoid places with polluted water;
  2. Eat only boiled water;
  3. Be sure to wash your hands after contact with sewage;
  4. Cover your nose with special devices while swimming;
  5. Try not to swallow water when bathing.

Negleria Fowler is the most dangerous parasite that exists at the moment, due to the high risk of death and the lack of a specific treatment regimen.

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