Subcutaneous Myiasis In Humans - Signs, Symptoms And Treatment

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Subcutaneous Myiasis In Humans - Signs, Symptoms And Treatment
Subcutaneous Myiasis In Humans - Signs, Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Subcutaneous Myiasis In Humans - Signs, Symptoms And Treatment

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Video: Lecture 2-6 Myiasis 2023, January
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The causative agent and ways of infection of subcutaneous myiasis

Content

  • 1 How does the infection occur?
  • 2 Varieties
  • 3 Diagnosis and treatment
  • 4 Treatment at home
  • 5 Possible complications
  • 6 Preventive measures

Subcutaneous myiasis is a disease in which dipteran insects lay larvae under the human skin. This is most often due to insufficient hygiene or wound care.

Subcutaneous myiasis is a parasitic disease caused by the larvae of some insect species. It occurs against the background of infection of open wounds or cavities on the body of animals or people. In the overwhelming majority of cases, flies and gadflies become the cause of pathology.

For the first time, subcutaneous myiasis as a disease was discovered in the 19th century by the English scientist Hope. It was he who designated this pathology as a disease caused by the larvae of dipterans. He exposed subcutaneous myiasis as a distinct disease from scoletiasis.

How does the infection take place?

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Subcutaneous myiasis occurs against the background of laying eggs of flies or other dipterans in wounds or cavities on the human body. In the vast majority of cases, the ears, eyes, long-healing wounds, massive injuries and nasal passages are susceptible to infection.

In rare cases, subcutaneous myiasis occurs due to the ingestion of fly larvae along with food. This form of the disease is the hardest to treat.

The following insects can provoke subcutaneous myiasis:

  • Sand flea;
  • Fly pedestal;
  • Wolfarth fly;
  • All kinds of gadflies.

    Wolfarth fly
    Wolfarth fly
    Fly curbstone
    Fly curbstone
    Sand flea
    Sand flea

Keep in mind that insect larvae have a fairly high vitality. It is for this reason that they can live in the body for a long time. Today, the following types of subcutaneous myiasis are distinguished: cavity, tissue, intestinal, genital and ocular.

Keep in mind that the treatment of this pathology must be dealt with by a qualified attending physician. This disease is extremely dangerous, it can easily lead to death.

Despite the terrible manifestations and serious consequences, the treatment of subcutaneous myiasis is carried out with conventional antiparasitic drugs. However, they are taken in large doses and for much longer. It is extremely difficult to cure subcutaneous myiasis on your own.

In the initial stages, when larvae are visible under the skin, it is necessary to fill them with any oil or petroleum jelly so that they begin to come out. After that, pick them up with a knife or with tweezers. When the wound is completely cleaned, fill it with alcohol and cover it with an adhesive plaster.

For an infection with subcutaneous myiasis to occur, contact with the pathogen alone is not enough. It is necessary for the insect to find a wound on your body and decide to deposit the larvae in it. For developed countries, this is a fairly rare occurrence. Most often, subcutaneous myiasis occurs in residents of hot and humid regions.

For infection, it is necessary that certain conditions are met:

  • Consume water or food contaminated by larvae;
  • Ignore the rules of personal hygiene;
  • Swim in contaminated water bodies;
  • Constantly contact with pets;
  • Do not treat body wounds;
  • Touch the carrion.

    Ignore personal hygiene rules
    Ignore personal hygiene rules
    Swim in contaminated water
    Swim in contaminated water
    Do not treat body wounds
    Do not treat body wounds

Varieties

At the moment, subcutaneous myiasis has 3 varieties:

  • Epidermal type. This type of infection is characterized by the fixation of larvae in the deep layers of the epidermis. these microorganisms show no physical activity.
  • Subcutaneous type with the location of the larvae in the connective tissue. In this case, the larvae are fixed in the connective tissue or deep layers of the epidermis.
  • True subcutaneous myiasis. In this case, the parasites spread under the entire layer of the skin. in this case, the larvae of flies fall into wounds or ulcers. If the pathology is not treated for a long time, then the person can be eaten to death.

Diagnostics and treatment

It is very easy to diagnose subcutaneous myiasis. The doctor will examine the skin in sufficient detail, then press a little on the surface. Larvae under the skin usually live in whole colonies, they are very mobile.

If you notice such a phenomenon on your body, immediately consult a parasitologist. He will prescribe effective and safe treatment for you.

Therapy for this condition may look like this:

  • Surgical excision of the affected surface is the most common method of treatment, in which the doctor excises all eggs and larvae from under the human skin.
  • Treatment of the affected area with special antiseptics, which can eliminate the inflammatory process.
  • The imposition of special dressings on the skin - they allow you to restore the skin after excision of some of the tissues.
  • Prescribing a number of medications to help avoid contamination of internal organs.
  • Taking strong antibiotics is necessary to reduce the risk of complications, as well as reduce inflammation.

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Thanks to the timely started treatment, you will be able to quickly get rid of the manifestations of subcutaneous myiasis. When the first signs of this pathology appear, you should immediately contact your doctor. He will prescribe the most effective and appropriate treatment for you, thanks to which you can reduce the risk of complications.

Home treatment

To speed up the healing process, you can do some of the treatments at home. To do this, you will need to use special ointments, which you can also prepare at home.

Take a small amount of petroleum jelly, sulfur and tar in the following proportions: 1/4/2, then mix all the ingredients thoroughly. Applying the ointment to the affected area every day for a week will help remove the larvae from the body.

To get rid of the manifestations of subcutaneous myiasis will help the treatment of the skin with celandine. You can buy it both ready-made and cook it yourself: take a tablespoon of chopped celandine and fill it with a glass of boiling water. Leave the infusion for 1 hour, then drink the broth in half a glass in the morning and evening.

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A decoction of currant leaves and fennel will help you speed up the recovery of the body. To do this, take 200 ml of boiling water, a teaspoon of fennel and chopped currant leaves. Mix these ingredients thoroughly and leave to infuse for 30 minutes. Drink the medicine in a small cup 4 times a day.

To ease the course of the disease, it is recommended to adhere to the following rules:

  • Try to use as spicy seasonings as possible - they cause death of the nervous system of parasites;
  • Use ointments based on birch tar or tea tree oil;
  • Wipe the skin with special antiseptics;
  • Take large quantities of special herbal teas;
  • Eat pumpkin seed gruel on an empty stomach;
  • Do cleansing enemas before bed;
  • Take a decoction of green walnuts regularly;
  • Take laxative tablets every day;
  • Boost the body's immune capacity.

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Possible complications

Subcutaneous myiasis is a rather dangerous disease that almost always causes the development of any complications.

In most cases, a secondary infection joins the process of treating this pathology, due to which phlegmon or abscesses form on the skin.

Also, often cellulite occurs on the affected tissue - an acute purulent inflammation of adipose tissue. The risk of tetanus is significantly increased even though you are vaccinated. The greatest danger is osteomyelitis, which is difficult to treat.

The greatest danger is posed by the migration of parasites throughout the body. They can penetrate into nerve nodes or blood vessels. The death of these microorganisms can disrupt all processes taking place in the body, as well as provoke a toxic-allergic reaction.

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If you do not provide help to a person in time, he may be fatal. Quite often, tissue damage occurs from subcutaneous myiasis. Larvae can easily provoke an inflammatory process or purulent inflammation in the body.

Preventive measures

The main danger of subcutaneous myiasis is that it is almost impossible to notice this pathology at the initial stages. The person can pay attention to the symptoms but take no action. Because of this, the treatment of the pathology is delayed, which causes serious complications.

To reduce the risk of any complications, it is recommended that you take good care of your hygiene and sanitation.

If any wounds appear on the skin, immediately treat them with antiseptics and cover them with a plaster. Any wounds, especially those with blood and pus, are a treat for insects.

Remember to handle your food carefully. It is best to pour boiling water over fruits, vegetables and herbs. Meat and fish must be sufficiently heat treated.

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Try not to buy perishable food from your hands on the street - in this case, the risk of catching an infection will be extremely high. Remember to wash your hands with antibacterial soap and do regular general cleaning.

Also, take the following preventive measures:

  • Protect food from insects;
  • Treat wounds immediately;
  • Use insect repellents;
  • Conduct prophylaxis among pets;
  • Eat only washed vegetables;
  • Immediately remove corpses and carrion from your area;
  • Fight parasitic insects;
  • See your doctor regularly.

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