Table of contents:
- Causes and symptoms of respiratory chlamydia
- Ways of transmission of the disease
- The reasons
- Symptoms and signs
- Nosological forms of the disease in adults
- Extrapulmonary forms of the disease
- Forecast and prevention
Video: Respiratory Chlamydia In Adults - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment
Causes and symptoms of respiratory chlamydia
- 1 Description
- 2 Ways of transmission of the disease
- 3 Reasons
4 Symptoms and signs
4.1 Signs of pathology in children
- 5 Nosological forms of the disease in adults
- 6 Extrapulmonary forms of the disease
- 7 Diagnostics
- 8 Treatment
- 9 Forecast and prevention
Most people know that chlamydia is a type of STD. But there are times when a pathogenic bacterium enters the human body by airborne droplets, affecting the respiratory system. In this case, they talk about such an ailment as respiratory chlamydia. Respiratory chlamydia is one of the strains of this type of bacteria, they usually affect children, in adults this form of the disease is very rare. In frequent cases, pathology affects the respiratory system from birth.
Respiratory chlamydia is very different from other forms of the disease, because its occurrence is provoked by other types of pathogen. The most common bacteria that cause disease are Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Chlamydia psittaci. All this causes difficulties in treatment, since different types of bacteria react in their own way to antibacterial drugs.
Ways of transmission of the disease
The ways of transmission of the disease are also different, the infection can enter the human body, in particular the lungs, in different ways:
- Airborne, in which pathogenic bacteria enter the body when a person inhales air. When a person coughs or coughs, he releases aerosols with bacteria into the environment. Chlamydiae, which are in the air, join these aerosols, they enter the bronchi, and then the lungs of a person when he inhales. Then microorganisms multiply, provoking the formation of a pathological process in the body.
- Antenatal infection, in which the pathogen is transmitted from the mother infected with urogenital chlamydia until the moment of delivery. To prevent this from happening, during pregnancy, women are tested for the presence of various infections in the body. If chlamydia is found, antibiotic treatment is given. The newborn baby is also examined.
- The household contact route, in which the mucous membranes of the eyes are most often affected. Infection can occur through contact with household items, linen, contaminated hands of another person. But all this happens extremely rarely, since in the external environment the bacterium dies very quickly.
- Contact with sick birds. In this case, domestic and wild birds are the source of infection; workers of farms and poultry farms are mainly affected by the disease.
Adults only get sick with this ailment if their immune system is severely impaired. The elderly, HIV-infected and cancer patients are at risk among adults.
The bacteria that cause the development of respiratory chlamydia are known in all world countries. The disease is mainly exposed to children during childbirth of a woman with this pathology. It is not uncommon for children to become infected from medical workers through their hands that have not been disinfected, as well as through clothes and toys. Bacteria such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Chlamydia pneumoniae, or Chlamydia psittaci most often enter the body by airborne droplets.
The bacteria settle on the mucous membrane, and then spread to all cells, where they multiply. After that, the number of bacteria in the body quadruples. Chlamydiae destroy cells, the infection begins to spread to all organs. Most often, chlamydia is observed in the lungs, they gradually begin to destroy them. For the development of respiratory chlamydia, two days must pass from the moment of infection.
One of the reasons for the development of pathology is a decrease in immunity. This may be due to a lack of vitamins in the body, as well as seasonal factors. Therefore, doctors recommend including fresh vegetables and fruits in the diet.
Symptoms and signs
Regardless of how a person contracted this ailment, respiratory chlamydia symptoms are different. It depends, first of all, at what level the mucous membrane will be affected. The incubation period of the disease can last up to two weeks, after which the first signs of pathology appear, which are similar to those in ARVI. First, the temperature rises, a slight cough, a runny nose appears. After a while, the cough intensifies, and respiratory tract spasms are observed. The signs of the disease gradually increase, if the disease is not treated in time, the infection will provoke the development of pneumonia.
In children, the disease develops gradually. First, the child has a sore throat, mucus accumulates in the nose, and then the lungs become infected, pulmonary chlamydia develops, which is the most dangerous form of the disease, accompanied by various complications.
There are no specific symptoms for this disease. Therefore, his treatment is read in the same way as with ARVI, in some cases the disease is completely cured.
Signs of pathology in children
This disease in children occurs in the form of:
- Chlamydial conjunctivitis, which affects the child's eyes. The main symptom here is a change in the eyeball, the appearance of redness in both eyes and purulent discharge, while the state of health remains normal. Lymph nodes in the area of the auricles are often enlarged. If you do not carry out treatment, the symptoms disappear after a month, and the disease becomes chronic.
- Chlamydial bronchitis, which affects the airways. This form of the disease is most often seen in newborn babies. The body temperature does not increase, but a dry cough appears, which is characterized by prolonged attacks. After this, the child's health worsens.
- Chlamydial pneumonia, in which the lungs become infected. Pulmonary chlamydia symptoms are pronounced. The child develops a severe cough, accompanied by vomiting and cyanosis, and shortness of breath gradually appears. This form of the disease is very complex and poses a danger to a young organism. In some cases, the disease leads to the development of pleurisy, pneumothorax and others.
With any form of this disease, an increase in the liver and spleen is observed, and enterocolitis often develops. The disease can go away on its own, without any treatment.
Nosological forms of the disease in adults
First, the pathology develops in the form of ARVI, then rhinopharyngitis, tracheitis, bronchitis and pneumonia. Chlamydia in the lungs after a while cause intoxication of the whole organism. Thus, respiratory chlamydia manifests itself as:
- ARI (ARVI), in which there is a prolonged cough, runny nose, pain in the joints. This form of the disease has a long course and often turns into chronic chlamydia.
- Laryngotracheitis, characterized by inflammation of the larynx and trachea, swelling of the mucous membrane, shortness of breath. The disease manifests itself in an increase in lymph nodes, a barking cough, an increase in temperature.
- Bronchitis or asthma with chlamydia are manifested in the form of cough, shortness of breath, asthma attacks. Often an immediate medical appointment is required.
- Pneumonia characterized by a severe course. It is observed when there are chlamydia in the lungs, symptoms in adults are manifested in the form of severe cough, wheezing, sputum with impurities of pus, acidosis, pain in the chest area.
Extrapulmonary forms of the disease
Respiratory chlamydia can also affect other organs and systems of the human body. It can act as:
- Reactive arthritis, in which chlamydia affects the joints of the limbs, as well as the temporomandibular joints. With untimely treatment, polyarthritis develops. Pathology begins to manifest itself one month after infection. Signs of its manifestation are joint swelling, an increase in its size, and redness of the skin. Over time, the body temperature increases, weakness and back pain appear.
- Conjunctivitis, manifested in photophobia, swelling of the eyelids, redness of the eyes, purulent discharge.
- Pyelonephritis, which is chronic. Chlamydia manifests itself in the form of pain in the kidney area, itching when urinating, frequent urge, and increased blood pressure.
- Urethritis, which is manifested by symptoms such as purulent discharge from the urethra, the development of cystitis or prostatitis. Over time, the urethra narrows, epididymitis, vulvitis, etc. appear.
- Lymphadenitis, characterized by a strong increase in lymph nodes, which is accompanied by pain.
Diagnosis of pathology
To detect pulmonary chlamydia, the doctor prescribes a microbiological examination, chest radiography, blood tests (general and serological), PCR, ELISA and so on. Also, for an accurate diagnosis, a smear is taken from the pharynx for bacterioscopy. Differential diagnostics is of no small importance.
Drugs for treatment
After the diagnosis, the doctor prescribes complex therapy, which includes the intake of antibiotics, enzymes and vitamins, immunomodulators. In all countries of the world, respiratory chlamydia treatment involves macrolide antibacterial drugs.
With an advanced and acute form of the disease, the doctor prescribes one macrolide drug, and the other biseptol. The course of treatment is usually about fourteen days. The drug "Erespal" is used as a pathogenetic therapy. It helps to eliminate puffiness, regulate the viscosity and volume of sputum. In case of relapses of the disease, use "Pentoxil", "Likopid" and so on.
Forecast and prevention
Prevention of the disease
Against the background of other respiratory ailments, chlamydia is rare and does not pose a threat to health. But a neglected disease can cause negative consequences that will be difficult to deal with. Therefore, doctors recommend paying due attention to disease prevention.
Chlamydia should be treated in a timely manner to avoid complications. Masks should be used during treatment. Pregnant women should be screened for infections. Newborn children should be isolated, all the rules for caring for them must be followed, and hygiene must be observed.