Nematodes What Is It And How Not To Become A Victim Of The Parasite

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Nematodes What Is It And How Not To Become A Victim Of The Parasite
Nematodes What Is It And How Not To Become A Victim Of The Parasite

Video: Nematodes What Is It And How Not To Become A Victim Of The Parasite

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Video: Parasitic Diseases Lectures #21: Nematodes 2023, February
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What are nematodes, what species are found and how is their presence manifested in the body

Content

  • 1 Learn more about nematodes
  • 2 Features of life and structure
  • 3 Nematodes - parasites

    • 3.1 Nematodes on plants
    • 3.2 Nematodes on animals
    • 3.3 Nematodes in humans
    • 3.4 Ascaris
    • 3.5 Pinworms
    • 3.6 Vlasoglava
    • 3.7 Nematodes
    • 3.8 Hookworms
  • 4 Variants of nematode infestation
  • 5 The main symptoms of infection
  • 6 Diagnostics
  • 7 Fundamentals of drug therapy
  • 8 Traditional methods of treatment
  • 9 Treatment for pregnant women
  • 10 Preventive measures
  • 11 Summing up

Nematodes are special parasites that, in terms of their external physiological characteristics and the peculiarities of their existence, belong to the type of ordinary roundworms. This group ranks second in total number among the many varieties of standard multicellular individuals.

What are nematode organisms and what kind of characteristics are inherent in them, it is worth considering in more detail.

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Learn more about nematodes

The described categories of roundworms in total number about 27 thousand of the most different species. This category includes not only freely existing small worms, but also parasites dangerous to humans.

A class of individuals - worms, as well as helminths, which tend to parasitize on different animals and in the human body - have become quite widespread. We are talking about such common species as pinworm, common roundworm and whipworm.

There are also special nematodes that parasitize garden plants such as strawberries or potato bushes.

Features of life and structure

In terms of their physical structure and the characteristics of their vital activity, organisms are quite simple. Describing the characteristics of individuals, the following important factors can be noted:

  1. The grown organism consists of a large number of somatic cellular elements, as well as those that ensure the reproduction process.
  2. The parasite's gastrointestinal tract starts from the usual mouth opening, goes along the entire length of the body, and ends with the anus located in the tail.
  3. Nematodes possess nervous, reproductive and excretory systems inherent in most organisms. In this case, the respiratory and standard circulatory systems are not noted.
  4. A feature of this worm is its size, there is a length that reaches 8 meters.
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In the category of worms, there are special viviparous individuals, but the bulk lays eggs, from which larvae appear after a certain time. The stage of formation and appearance of eggs is characteristic of the reproductive system of females, and it starts after the act of fertilization by her male. This process consists in the introduction of sperm into the genitals of the female.

Nematodes, among which a large number of parasites are noted, are distinguished by an ideal ability to adapt to environmental conditions, very tall, relatively simple life cycle and an increased speed of movement in any conditions. The individual has the ability to adapt to any conditions, be it water, soil or the human body.

Nematodes - parasites

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To understand what nematodes are, it is worthwhile to study in more detail their main parasitic properties. It should be noted right away that eggs laid by nematodes are oval in shape. In the process of passing this stage of natural development, they are completely safe.

It is in the eggs that the development and growth of larvae takes place with an inherent initial life cycle. As soon as an organism is in the environment, it matures quickly enough and becomes a sexually mature organism.

Important! Each category of nematodes has an individual peculiarity of life, development, and structure. It depends on what kind of life this or that organism leads.

Nematodes on plants

Individuals choosing plants as their living environment are characterized by a special development cycle. The process is carried out in a relatively unstable environment. As soon as organisms are in the outside world, they immediately strive to get into the ground to lay eggs.

Animal nematodes

For organisms that parasitize animals, a simple cycle of life and development is inherent. A distinctive characteristic is the maximum increased fertility. This process is carried out regardless of whether there is an intermediate carrier or not.

The second cycle of development is when the eggs enter the ground. Here, development continues until the larva appears. After this comes the standard parasitic existence. Most stages of development are characterized by feeding exclusively on the resources of the host.

Nematodes in humans

In the body of an ordinary person, you can find several types of worms belonging to the category of nematodes. It is worthwhile to study in more detail the question of which nematodes are found in humans and what helminthic diseases they can cause.

Ascaris

The causative agent causes the appearance of a disease such as ascariasis. This is a fairly common ailment that can be encountered not only by children, but also by adults. Roundworms tend to grow up to 40 cm, and the body of the individual has a cylindrical shape with a slight narrowing towards the end.

This type of helminth belongs to a category that fully lives and feeds on humans. Eggs that have passed the fertilization process are removed from the body at the same time as feces. To go through the subsequent development process, they need to get into ordinary soil.

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Pinworms

There is a category of nematodes that causes enterobiasis. We are talking about a children's pinworm, which can be infected by everyone, but children most often. The parasite itself is a small worm of a special whitish color. It is a relatively small organism, the length of which can reach 10 mm. The physical structure of the body is straight and ends in a sharp tip.

This species lives strictly in the lower part of the small intestine and for a long time feeds on all the beneficial elements that fill it from time to time. Another feature is the absence of an intermediate host.

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Vlasoglava

Individuals cause a disease known in medicine as trichocephalosis. The main habitat is part of the small intestine, as well as its wide upper section. The parasite lives only in the human body and does not need to change the host. To complete the full development period, the parasite simply needs to leave the previously selected organism.

Nematodoses

This type of helminth appears in humans after communicating with infected animals. They can also enter the body through the consumption of vegetables and fruits without pretreatment. Failure to comply with basic hygiene rules will sooner or later automatically lead to infection with nematodes.

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Hookworm

Parasites of this kind can be transmitted through animals. Sometimes it is enough to stroke infected dogs, cats and even horses for the helminth to enter the body. After an individual enters the human body, it settles exclusively on the inner part of the skin. It is for this reason that the presence of a helminth is very easy to determine.

The affected areas begin to itch very much, and subsequently a rash forms on them.

Nematode infestation options

The spread of parasites is based on the ability of larvae and eggs to survive in an initially unfavorable environment. In the human body, about 45 different types of helminths can easily get along.

Experienced infectious disease specialists identify three ways of possible infection:

  1. Mud. Parasites tend to enter the human body through unwashed hands, eating dirty food, using unwashed dishes and unpurified water.
  2. Bites. If a person is bitten by an infected insect, he will automatically become a carrier of nematodes.
  3. Wounds and damage to the skin. A conductor for the penetration of such parasites into the body is a damaged and unprotected area on the surface of the skin.

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Quite often, round helminths infestation occurs by already fully matured individuals. Having settled in the body, they continue to develop and complete their cycle inside the body.

The main symptoms of infection

As soon as nematodes appear in the body, a person immediately feels specific symptoms and ailments. Here are some signs that may indicate rapid migration and vital activity of parasites:

  • Constant itching in the anus if pinworms appear in the body;
  • Unjustified loss of desire to eat;
  • Unreasonable nausea, accompanied by vomiting;
  • Dark spots and circles under the eyes:
  • The appearance of allergic skin reactions to the consumption of protein foods;
  • Persistent stool disturbance;
  • Constant feeling of tiredness;
  • A sharp change in mood and mood.

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Important! The defeat of the described parasites causes quite serious and dangerous diseases. In other words, infection leads not only to physiological problems, but also to various deviations of the mental plan.

It is for this reason that, in the case of helminthic pathologies, it is so important to detect helminth infection in the most timely manner and begin a competently developed and thoughtful treatment. This will allow not to aggravate the general state of health, will not nullify the body's defenses.

Diagnostics

Experts can determine an accurate diagnosis using the use of modern drug research. To determine the presence of parasites and their type, a laboratory examination is mandatory.

Stool analysis is collected three times. This will determine the presence of worm eggs in it. Simultaneously with this, a study of the composition of the blood is carried out. This is necessary to detect antibodies, as well as to determine the number of leukocytes.

If, during the initial examination, the doctor suspects the presence of helminthic invasion of internal organs, a biopsy is performed. This rule applies to all organs except the liver, lungs and heart.

Fundamentals of drug therapy

Infection with helminths is not a sentence. Currently, there are a fairly large number of different drugs aimed at eliminating worms from the body and recovering it after excretion. Treatment is prescribed by an infectious disease doctor after collecting information about the patient and obtaining a complete history.

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Medicines of such a plan are calculated strictly on the basis of body weight and require a mandatory preliminary calculation. This is an important rule, since many drugs have a toxic effect not only on parasites, but also on the human body. In order not to harm him, it is required to carefully calculate the permissible dosage.

Here are the most basic medicines by which you can quickly get rid of worms:

  • Pirantel is the most effective and at the same time inexpensive drug that is able to destroy not only adults, but also larvae and eggs. In addition, the agent has a mild laxative effect.
  • Gelmodol VM is another effective medicine. The main active ingredient is Albendazole, which quickly kills helminths. Parasites leave the human body in the usual way. The general course of treatment consists of two tablets, but to achieve optimal results, you must strictly follow the doctor's recommendations.
  • Nemazole. This drug comes in pill form, but there is also a syrup for babies. After entering the body, the drug completely blocks the normal vital activity of helminths, which automatically causes their death. Dead organisms leave the intestines at the same time as feces.

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To get rid of patients from worms, specialists often use conventional laxatives made on a salt or herbal basis

In some cases, specialists may perform a procedure known as oxygen therapy. It consists in the introduction of oxygen into the intestines, which is able to instantly kill some types of parasites and cleanse the body of parasites in a natural way.

Traditional methods of treatment

You can quickly cope with parasites using traditional medicine recipes. The doctor may prescribe them in parallel with medication, as an additional therapy, or separately, for example, before or after a course of medications.

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At the moment, medicine uses a large number of plants that are endowed with anthelmintic properties. Some of them are enough to use regularly as a spice or seasoning for main dishes, while others need to be drunk in courses.

Here are the most basic ones:

  • Thyme, thyme. They contain thymol, which gives off a repellent and parasite-destroying aroma;
  • Ginger is ideal in this regard, but you need to use it fresh, for example, as a spicy food additive;
  • Ray and garlic also perfectly cope with helminths, but not in their usual form, but infused with vodka. The composition is made on the basis of the proportions prescribed by the doctor and is taken in the morning on an empty stomach. Children are also given a similar tincture, but not with vodka, but with water;
  • Flowers of tansy have a good effect, but it is worth knowing that the plant has a strong choleretic effect, therefore people suffering from cholelithiasis need to take the infusion very carefully.

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On the example of tansy, it becomes clear that even seemingly harmless folk remedies can seriously harm the body. This is the reason why it is so important to use the prescriptions prescribed by your doctor.

In addition to tansy, you can use a large number of other herbs that are characterized by a unique anthelminthic effect. The main advantage is that they can be used to prepare not only ordinary infusions, but useful powders, tinctures and even oils.

The most effective and efficient of them include the following recipes:

  1. Wormwood treatment. Dry grass must be thoroughly crushed and taken in 0.3 grams (1 capsule) before an evening meal. The first two days, one capsule is taken, on the third day - 2, then on the 7th day one dose is added - 3, 4, 5, 6 capsules. From 8 to 14 days, the patient should take 7 capsules.
  2. Wormwood infusion. For cooking, you need to take 2 small spoons of dry raw materials and pour 200 ml of boiling water over them. After about 20 minutes, the composition must be filtered and taken in a quarter of a glass three times a day half an hour before eating.

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  3. Oil treatment. A very effective oil can be prepared using wormwood. To obtain it, you need to take 500 grams of the mixture and a liter of ordinary vegetable oil, but preferably the first pressing. The composition is infused for two weeks in a cool and dark place, periodically you just need to shake everything thoroughly. After two weeks of infusion, the oil is ready to use, but you cannot drink it! To obtain an antiparasitic effect, you need to take one tablespoon of the mixture and hold it in your mouth like a regular candy. After a couple of minutes, spit out the composition, and rinse your mouth.
  4. Alcohol tincture of tansy. To prepare it, you need to take 250 grams of raw materials, pour 400 ml of vodka and leave for seven days. The remedy is taken in 30 drops after eating. The general course of treatment lasts 10 days.
  5. "Troicatka" helps very well, that is, a mixture of three herbs - cloves, wormwood and tansy. Each raw material must be taken in equal amounts and ground in a coffee grinder. From the resulting composition, you need to make small capsules. To do this, 0.3 grams of powder is rolled into bread balls. It is necessary to take one capsule once a day for the first three days. After that, you can take the capsules three times a day, for 10 days. The composition is taken with caution in the presence of stomach ulcers and with increased pressure.

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Ideal results can be achieved with ginger. You need to take the root of this plant, fill it with a liter of cold water and store it in the refrigerator. After about 2-3 hours, the composition can be drunk in the amount of one glass per day.

The grated root can be combined with 10 ml of pure water and two tablespoons of honey. If you use this mixture for 3-4 weeks, you can quickly get rid of worms.

It is advisable to mix these funds with the use of pineapple. The fruit contains the enzyme bromelain, which completely dissolves the protein structure of the worm. After that, all the elements are broken down by pancreatic enzymes. It is not necessary to consume whole pineapple for optimal effect. 300 grams per day will be enough.

Treatment for pregnant women

There is no particular single point of view here. The correct option would be to examine the mother before pregnancy, but this is not always the case. The bulk of the drugs are contraindicated in pregnancy and breastfeeding, as they are quite toxic drugs. The only thing that can be consumed with a detected infection is Piperazine adipate, but it is also prescribed by a gynecologist.

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There are several safe products that can be used to significantly alleviate the situation. It is enough to include 4 grams of garlic, pumpkin seeds and pineapples in your daily diet to get a positive anthelminthic effect.

The only thing to pay attention to is that garlic should not be consumed during lactation. Herbs are also unacceptable for nursing or pregnancy, as some of them can cause termination of pregnancy.

Prevention measures

Nematodes and similar helminthic pathologies are difficult to treat. It is for this reason that it is so important to follow certain preventive measures to prevent diseases.

Among the most important of them are the following events:

  • It is required to maintain optimal cleanliness in the premises, as well as in the backyard.
  • In the presence of pets, it is required to clean up all experiments in a timely manner.
  • It is very important to dust regularly. The best option is to treat the room with ultraviolet lamps.

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  • In the courtyard in the sandboxes, the sand needs to be stirred from time to time to ensure access to the rays of the sun.
  • It is imperative to carry out prophylaxis in pets. This process must be carried out at least once every 90 days, if the animal is walking, if not, then once every six months is enough.
  • You can swim only in clean, proven reservoirs.
  • Fish and meat products must be used and consumed after undergoing complete heat treatment.
  • Fruits and vegetables need to be washed very thoroughly. Root crops are initially completely cleaned of dirt, everything is rinsed and peeled.
  • Dirty dishes must not be used. For hiking, it is worth purchasing special disposable devices.
  • Sewage and cesspools located on the site must be located at a remote distance from houses and from drinking sources, fully relying on sanitary standards.
  • Hands need to be washed regularly, and children need to cut their nails on time.
  • Each person should have their own personal linen and bedding. If the work is on a rotational basis, it is required to process the linen using ordinary ironing.

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Knowledge about this form of helminth infection and how to deal with it will prevent the disease or not lead to complications.

Summing up

Based on the above, we can conclude that roundworms are special organisms that are capable of infecting not only plants and animals, but what is more dangerous - humans. The risk of infection awaits adults and children almost everywhere.

If you do not neglect the basic rules of hygiene and properly handle food, you can effectively prevent infection with these parasites.

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