Table of contents:
- Why is the human roundworm dangerous?
- Ascaris characteristic
- The entry of the parasite into the human body
- Reproduction of helminth
- Pathogenesis of ascariasis
- Ascariasis in adults: how to recognize
- Diagnosis of ascariasis
- How to treat ascariasis
- What pills for ascariasis are prescribed
- Rehabilitation after ascariasis
- Features of ascariasis in children
- Prevention of ascariasis
Video: Ascaris Human - Symptoms And Treatment Methods
Why is the human roundworm dangerous?
- 1 Characteristics of roundworm
- 2 The entry of the parasite into the human body
- 3 Reproduction of helminth
- 4 Pathogenesis of ascariasis
- 5 Ascariasis in adults: how to recognize
- 6 Diagnosis of ascariasis
- 7 How to treat ascariasis
- 8 What pills for ascariasis are prescribed
- 9 Rehabilitation after ascariasis
- 10 Features of ascariasis in children
- 11 Prevention of ascariasis
The helminthic invasion caused by the ingestion of roundworm eggs in the human body is called ascariasis. Ascariasis is a fairly common disease in Russia, this can be explained by the simplicity of the infection routes. Food or water contaminated with helminth eggs, contact with an infected person, pets are all possible ways of transmission of the disease.
Roundworms in humans are not always expressed by vivid symptoms, certain signs of the disease. It happens that the patient himself does not notice the deterioration of his condition. But, most likely, he does not attach importance to the increased frequency of pain in the intestines, attacks of nausea, weakness and malaise. All this can be attributed to fatigue, poor nutrition, etc.
Ascaris human belongs to the roundworm family, the class of nematodes. Its body is pale pinkish, cylindrical in shape, and has pointed tips. The length of the helminth depends on its sex: males grow up to 25 cm, and females grow up to 40 cm. The body cavity of the parasite also has internal organs. Ascaris is not able to breathe in the literal sense of the word, but oxygen or alternative nutrition is received either through the body surface or through anaerobic respiratory organs.
The helminth is deprived of the attachment organs - the parasite carries out the movement using the cuticles. They replace the helminth with a flexible skeleton. Parasites live in the intestines of the host. There, females shed their egg shells, and grow until puberty.
But in the host's body, they, of course, do not appear in an adult form. First, the female lays eggs: they come out directly with feces, fall into the soil. Larvae grow in eggs for more than three weeks under suitable temperature conditions. Under less optimal conditions, the first stage of development of this helminth can be inhibited even for several years. The life cycle of the roundworm continues in the human intestine.
The entry of the parasite into the human body
The entry of the parasite into the human body
If the larva has entered the human body, it quickly sheds the cocoon. The carriers of the parasite are insects that sit on food, poorly washed dishes, as well as dirty fruits, unclean hands.
Having thrown off its shell, the helminth larva immediately goes through the intestines to the inferior vena cava, moves to the heart, from there it quickly enters the lungs. A person coughs, the worm is in saliva, with it he goes back to the digestive tract. There, the ascaris is already growing to a sexually mature state.
Ascaris is growing, and the serum in the intestines is no longer enough for it. Now, for the subsequent development of the parasite, it needs oxygen-rich red blood cells. Young helminths migrate through the intestinal capillaries into the vasculature, then into the lungs (this path dictates hunger to it).
Reproduction of helminth
In the process of mating, a female helminth can lay more than two hundred thousand eggs every day. They gradually leave with feces, after ripening in soil conditions, they can again enter the host's body, i.e. human. Obviously, the life cycle of the parasite is such that it does not need to move from one host to another. The helminth lives in the host's body for up to a year, and during this time the larvae can disperse throughout the body.
About a month after the onset of the disease, people feel unusual fatigue, weight loss. And the diagnosis is not always informative, since by no means all larvae in the migration stage are in the intestine. Some of the parasites attack the liver, where destruction awaits them, and they leave the body with phlegm and mucus from the bronchi.
Pathogenesis of ascariasis
The process of worm development should be conditionally divided into two large stages - intestinal and migration. The stage of migration is the sensitization of the host's body with the waste products and decay of the larvae that are in the blood. Substances that the larvae secrete are certainly the strongest allergens. That is, they are quite capable of causing an allergic reaction.
For example, only larval migration can cause:
- The presence of infiltrates in the lungs;
- Skin rash;
- Granulomatous hepatitis;
- Injury of blood vessels (provokes internal bleeding or hemorrhage).
The intestinal stage usually does not show such an allergic picture. Adults mechanically infect the intestinal walls with one movement along the digestive system. This causes reflex disturbances in the activity of the intestines and stomach, develops a spastic need for the small intestine. Even a rupture of the organ wall is not excluded.
What else is dangerous ascariasis is a serious violation of vitamin metabolism. The assimilation of nutrients is complicated: in people with helminthic invasion, a lack of retinol, pyridoxine, and the same ascorbic acid was found.
Ascariasis in adults: how to recognize
At the migration stage, the clinical picture is not always pronounced. But with intense infection, the symptoms are already quite bright, and this is not only a general malaise.
Signs of ascariasis:
- Fast fatiguability;
- Frequent rise in temperature;
- A noticeable skin rash.
In severe cases, the patient is observed pulmonary pathology: it is expressed by a wet cough, pain in the sternum, shortness of breath. Also, the migration of worm larvae sometimes even provokes pneumonia or bronchitis.
At the intestinal stage, the symptoms are often extended, and this is due to the pathological processes that started ascariasis, or the severity of the infection. Sometimes the patient voices complaints of decreased appetite, severe malaise, nausea, and increased secretion of the salivary glands.
There are not so few cases of ascariasis, which are characterized by an alternation of constipation with diarrhea. In some patients, enteritis is recorded, and in babies, helminthic invasion is often manifested by abdominal pain and dyspepsia.
Ascaris worms can cause serious complications: blockage of the small intestine, pancreatitis, appendicitis, etc. Therefore, any negative symptomatology is a reason for examination.
Diagnosis of ascariasis
Diagnosis of ascariasis
First, the doctor collects an anamnesis: he asks the patient questions, conducts an examination, listens to complaints. Dyspeptic disorders are characteristic of ascariasis: if a person feels unreasonable weakness for a long time, he is pale, he suffers from morning sickness, teeth grinding occurs at night, he has lost a lot of weight, this is all a reason to go to the doctor.
Research methods are rarely limited to only one procedure. Ascaris parasites are helminths difficult to detect. At least, it is not always possible from the very first time to detect their presence in the body with certainty.
The most affordable procedure is scatological analysis of feces:
- For analysis, you need feces collected on an empty stomach (be careful when collecting material: it should not come into contact with urine or menstrual flow);
- The procedure is necessarily duplicated, and more than once (worms do not always constantly emit eggs, therefore several analyzes will be indicative).
Assists in research and light microscopy. Quite often, doctors use the polydimensional chain reaction (PCR) method. It allows you to identify the specific sequence of the DNA chain of a given helminth.
Diagnosis of roundworm also involves a blood test. Markers of eosinophils and anemia will be important. Anemia, by the way, develops due to the fact that the worms eat red blood cells.
How to treat ascariasis
When the diagnosis is made, the patient is interested in how to get rid of roundworm. The treatment regimen for various types of helminthiasis is, by and large, typical. But still, for each parasite, specialists have special methods of influence. Always, with any helminthiasis, doctors offer an integrated approach to treatment. It is necessary not only to eliminate the parasite, but also to prepare the patient's digestive system for the deworming process.
Stages of therapy for ascariasis:
- Preparation of the gastrointestinal tract (at this stage, you need to take medications that stimulate the production of bile);
- Release from the toxins of the patient's body;
- Removing the helminths themselves;
- Rehabilitation therapy.
Each case is different. There is no single drug regimen that will help all patients. It is necessary to take into account the age of the patient, his general state of health, the stage of the disease, the degree of damage, the reaction to these or other medications, and the allergic status.
Modern medicines for the treatment of ascariasis in adult patients can be divided into two groups. The task of such therapy is to influence the muscles of the roundworm, it leads to their paralysis and death. The means that the doctor prescribes should infect not only adults, but also the larvae of helminths. Only a second negative control test can indicate recovery.
In addition, doctors prescribe pathogenetic therapy, which serves to restore hemoglobin levels in the blood. Antihistamine therapy relieves allergic symptoms. To restore the intestinal microflora and the functional activity of the gastrointestinal tract, modern enzyme preparations can be prescribed. Folk remedies can be used only as an additional treatment, and only after a medical consultation.
What pills for ascariasis are prescribed
For the treatment of ascariasis, the following antiparasitic drugs are prescribed: Albendazole (an analogue of this composition is Vormil), Vermox / Mebendazole, Pirantel, Dekaris, Santonin, Piperazin. The dosage and dosage regimen is prescribed by the doctor!
Other commonly prescribed remedies for roundworm include Bactefort. It is released in the form of drops, which is convenient for taking.
- Kill helminths at any stage of their development;
- Remove eggs and larvae from the body;
- Purify the blood;
- Remove toxins and toxins from the body;
- Relieve allergic symptoms;
- Bring the intestinal microflora back to normal.
The composition of these drops includes plant extracts of those herbs that have long been used as antiparasitic agents. These are ginger, tansy, wormwood, birch leaves, cloves, as well as mint, meadowsweet, etc.
Also, Helmifort is considered a natural remedy for worms. In addition to the fact that this medicine removes larvae and worms from the body, it also removes toxins, restoring health after infection.
Rehabilitation after ascariasis
Rehabilitation after ascariasis
Rehabilitation therapy is a mandatory treatment item. Doctors say that after treatment, many patients reconsider their diet, choose a balanced diet for themselves, and increase the vitamin component in the menu. And this is reasonable action: proper nutrition is shown to everyone, it is also an important part of the prevention of secondary infection.
During treatment, during the recovery period, the patient should cross out sweet and starchy foods from the diet. These are the foods that not only harm the metabolism, but also enhance the infectious and inflammatory processes in the body. For example, the effect of antibiotics is significantly weakened if a person eats sweets while taking the drugs. Even these days, doctors recommend drinking tea without sugar.
Select vitamin complexes taking into account the indicators of laboratory tests. If there are signs of anemia, the patient is prescribed medications with a large amount of iron.
It is logical to supplement the intake of synthetic complexes with natural vitamins: fruits, vegetables, berries, nuts. Food should be fortified, of high quality, systematic.
Features of ascariasis in children
Features of ascariasis in children
Quite often, worm diseases in children manifest themselves with a rise in temperature (sometimes it reaches a fever), chest pain, dry cough and, in rare cases, sputum with blood. When roundworms are in the intestines, the migratory stage is over, the child will complain of abdominal pain, nausea and weakness, weight loss, constipation and / or diarrhea.
The diagnosis will be the same as in adults, perhaps the doctor will adjust the study design. The drugs are prescribed according to the age, weight of the patient, and the stage of the disease. Symptomatic treatment will also be required.
Often, children are prescribed oxygen therapy, and as an additional procedure, this method is quite possible, it is effective and uncomplicated. But oxygen therapy alone is powerless against helminths. It should be noted that there are some contraindications, not all children are suitable for this method of dealing with worms.
Prevention of ascariasis
The best disease is the one you have escaped. This is an axiom, and yet not everyone follows it. Despite the high level of awareness and the promotion of a healthy lifestyle, not everyone remembers the importance of preventing helminthiasis. And only intimidating contextual advertising can force a person to reconsider their attitude to this issue. But the miraculous remedies that some Internet resources advertise so heavily may not only be useless, but even hazardous to health. Therefore, ascariasis can only be treated with a doctor, after passing tests and passing the necessary studies.
Several basic rules for the prevention of ascariasis:
- Wash your hands with soap and water. Doctors assure that hygienic hand washing with soap should take at least 1-2 minutes. Surface rinsing is meaningless. After outside, after preparing food (especially when working with fish and meat, vegetables), after contact with animals, wash your hands especially thoroughly.
- Never eat crops directly from the garden. It is, of course, delicious and tempting, but extremely dangerous. Ascaris eggs live in the soil, and it costs them nothing to get on a strawberry or cucumber. One such reckless action can lead to illness, subsequent treatment and recovery.
- In a public toilet, try not to touch surfaces, wash your hands, use additional wet wipes.
- Fight insects in your home. There should be no flies or mosquitoes, because they carry the very eggs of worms on their paws.
- Choose the sandboxes where your child plays carefully. They must be protected from animals. While playing in the sandbox, the kid should not touch his face, mouth, and when he comes home he needs to wash his hands thoroughly.
Unfortunately, pets can also become sources of infection. They are carriers of a number of diseases, from helminthiasis to toxoplasmosis, and the diseases are by no means harmless. Monitor the health of the pet, its cleanliness, regularly show the animal to the veterinarian.
Ascariasis is a problem that requires fast and high-quality treatment with the obligatory careful monitoring of the results of therapy. A special diet with a smooth transition to proper nutrition, taking vitamin complexes and preventing secondary infection will help the patient in recovery.