Strongyloidosis - Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention

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Strongyloidosis - Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention
Strongyloidosis - Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention

Video: Strongyloidosis - Symptoms, Treatment And Prevention

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Video: Helminths Strongyloides 2023, February
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Strongyloidosis - the main symptoms of the disease and the rules of treatment

Content

  • 1 Infection options
  • 2 The main causative agent of pathology
  • 3 Life cycle of bacteria
  • 4 Features of the infection process
  • 5 Signs of infection

    • 5.1 Uncomplicated form of infection
    • 5.2 Complicated form of pathology
  • 6 Diagnosis of infection
  • 7 Features and rules of treatment

    7.1 Treatment with folk remedies

  • 8 Preventive measures
  • 9 Conclusion

Strongyloidosis, or, as the pathology is also called, Cochin's diarrhea or anguillulose, is caused by nematodes, that is, roundworms called intestinal eel. Its peculiarity is the ability to go through a full life cycle and not leave the organism in which they settled.

Infection options

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The main pathogens of infection - parasitic organisms, belong to the Strongyloides category. We are talking about intestinal worms, which in the process of colonization cause a huge number of unpleasant symptoms in the patient's body. This issue should be studied in more detail, but it can be noted that pain in the abdomen, weight loss and acute manifestations of diarrhea stand out among the main signs.

Helminths are transmitted through the soil, making the disease widespread. Currently, from 30 to 100 ml of people who live in the bulk on the territory of subtropical and tropical states suffer from pathology. A certain risk of infection is also present in some CIS countries - Moldova, the Caucasus, Ukraine, and the southern settlements of the Russian Federation also suffer somewhat.

Important! Strongyloidiasis belongs to the group of neglected tropical diseases, but nevertheless, all over the world, one or another effort is used to completely eliminate such an infection.

The main causative agent of pathology

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Intestinal eel by its type and category belongs to a special round-shaped worm. The dimensions of an adult parasite range from 1 to 2 mm. At the head end of the body, there is a small mouth opening. It is through him that the absorption of various nutrients and nutrients is carried out.

The parasite develops in the mucous membrane of the stomach and all intestinal organs. Its eggs are oval in shape, and the shell is almost transparent. The female species is able to lay up to about 50 eggs literally in a day. Their hatching rate is high enough, due to which young individuals appear even while the intestines are in. The process of development of parasites stops at this, and in order for it to continue, the larvae, according to natural data, must leave the human body simultaneously with his excrement.

Bacteria life cycle

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Bacteria life cycle

The parasite is characterized by a rather complex cycle of general natural development. In this form, two main generations are distinguished - those living in the soil and the parasites themselves. After emerging in the host, the larvae tend to enter their natural environment. Here, after about four fully completed molts, the larvae are transformed into free-living or adult species. Each of them will produce large numbers of non-invasive larvae.

New individuals or those that have emerged from the intestines, which have not yet reached full adult age, are able, instead of four molts, to pass only two molts and at this stage take the form of filariform larvae. It is this form that is dangerous and invasive, and it is this form that most often penetrates into a person through food or wounds on the surface of the skin.

In the human body, only females can develop and reproduce. They do not need a male for breeding. The need for a male individual arises only for individuals living in the ground, that is, freely.

Important! In some cases, the larvae immediately take the form of parasites, while being in the human body. In a similar situation, a person is re-infected or autoinfected. This is what makes strongyloidosis a very serious disease requiring treatment.

Features of the infection process

The main source of infection in this situation is a person who has already become infected and who periodically excretes feces with helminth eggs. The process of infection and development of the disease is characterized by the following infection mechanisms:

  1. Percutaneous or penetration of parasites through the skin. Moreover, the presence of wounds is not an indicator and factor for penetration. The larvae of this parasite tend to penetrate through the sebaceous and sweat glands, as well as through the hair follicles. In this case, you can become infected with parasites simply lying on the grass or while walking on it barefoot. Often people become infected when performing a variety of agricultural work.
  2. Autoinvasion. In this case, the process of human infection is carried out in the intestinal lumen, at a time when the eggs of the eel produce a complete release of the larvae with their subsequent development in the human body.

The most common infection is the oral route. A colossal risk of infection is present from the consumption of contaminated vegetables and fruits, as well as contaminated drinking water.

Signs of infection

From the time the larva enters the body until the moment a person encounters the first signs, on average 3 weeks pass, but in some cases this period reaches several years. At the initial phase of the disease, there is a complete absence of any specific signs of this pathology. As the disease develops and progresses, the patient experiences the appearance of rather severe allergic reactions. Among the main symptoms are the following:

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  • Increased irritation, weakness, headache and dizziness;
  • An increase in the general body temperature up to 38 degrees;
  • The appearance of symptoms characteristic of general intoxication of the body;
  • Formation of a variety of respiratory disorders - bronchitis and manifestation of pneumonia;
  • The appearance of disorders in the gastrointestinal tract - vomiting, nausea, an increase in the size of the liver with a simultaneous increase in the amount of bilirubin in the blood.

When these signs of pathology appear, you should immediately seek help from a specialist who will prescribe an examination and treatment based on them.

An uncomplicated form of infection

Symptoms in a simple form of pathology can be conditionally divided into several forms. Among the most important of them are the following:

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  • Digestive. It is characterized by signs that are similar to gastritis, enteritis, peptic ulcer diseases. The patient suffers from diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and constipation, which are often accompanied by bleeding;
  • Dermal. The manifestation of such signs as a rash, urticaria, traces of the migration of larvae, which look like larvae that stand out under the skin;
  • Gallbladder. Here there is pain in the abdomen, belching, pain on the right side, decreased appetite, a feeling of bitterness;
  • Nervous and allergic. It is manifested by increased irritability, itchy skin, joint pain;
  • Pulmonary. There are unpleasant symptoms such as dry cough, burning sensation in the chest area, fever, difficulty breathing, shortness of breath.

There is also a mixed form of pathology, which is mild and quite severe. An important factor here is that as soon as the pathology becomes chronic, it will begin to proceed completely asymptomatic. This is the particular danger of this disease.

Complicated form of pathology

This form of infection is characterized by a serious failure in the immune system, which automatically leads to an even faster increase in the total number of larvae and adults. In this case, the patient already has symptoms such as:

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  1. Pain and bloating in the abdomen;
  2. Sepsis;
  3. Shock from intoxication.

Parasites are capable of spreading quite rapidly to a wide variety of organs. This becomes the reason for the development of a local infection, for example, meningitis.

The increase in the total number of parasites in the human body can take more than one decade after the initial infection. Typically, this is caused by high doses of modern corticosteroids, HIV, syphilis, malnutrition, anemia, tuberculosis, diabetes.

Diagnosis of infection

It is quite difficult to identify this pathology. Initially, the specialist considers the general symptoms of the manifestation of the problem, directs it to a blood test. If these parasites are present in the body, the ESR index will be increased in the blood, and the concentration of eosinophils often reaches 80%. At the same time, the doctor prescribes the following types of tests:

Stool examination for the presence of helminths. This analysis, in the presence of infection, gives a positive result, since eggs and larvae of the pathogen will necessarily be present there. There are a couple of important features here. The analysis will show the presence of a helminth only 4 weeks after infection, and a study for this parasite is carried out immediately after the raw material is delivered to the laboratory, it should not cool down

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  • A biopsy of the duodenum is performed.
  • An analysis of the duodenal fluid is taken if there is a suspicion of infection.
  • Larvae are often found in the sputum of a person who has a pulmonary form of infection.

Conducting standard serological tests for this disease is not carried out due to the minimal information content.

In the process of making a diagnosis, the doctor will first of all pay attention to the patient's skin, ask if there are any problems with this particular part of the body. The reason is that a characteristic symptom of this form of infection is specific surface rashes. These are usually pink or red blisters. Their localization is observed in the places of introduction of the worm larvae. If a person has walked barefoot on contaminated soil, such formations can occur on the feet.

In the absence of urgent measures, blisters begin to spread very quickly throughout the body, provoking very severe itching in a person. After a while, these rashes disappear and may appear from time to time.

If you see a doctor immediately after infection, he will be able to make a preliminary diagnosis based on blisters alone. After a certain amount of time has passed, the diagnosis may require much more tests to obtain a complete picture of the disease.

Features and rules of treatment

Due to the particular severity of the development of pathology, its treatment is recommended to be carried out exclusively in a hospital setting. When this form of infection is detected, doctors prescribe a drug such as Ivermectin. Among the basic rules for its application are the following:

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  1. In acute and chronic course, a dosage of 200 μg / kg may be prescribed for one or two days.
  2. To treat disseminated strongyloidosis, a daily dosage of 200 mcg / kg is used and lasts until stool tests show negative behavior of the larvae.
  3. During the period of treatment with this drug, the doctor temporarily excludes the intake of immunosuppressive agents.
  4. If the patient for some reason cannot take the drug orally, it is prescribed rectally.

If the patient cannot complete the course of treatment with this drug, the doctor may replace it with Albendazole and Thiabendazole. They are prescribed at a dosage of 25-400 mcg / kg twice a day for a week.

The listed drugs do not kill the larvae, but only the adult worms that are in the intestines. It is for this reason that it is so important to undergo a second course of therapy after about two weeks, the only way to completely suppress the infection. The optimal number of treatment courses has not been established, the issue is decided strictly individually. Therapy is prescribed until the larvae are completely removed.

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Albendazole

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Thiabendazole

This disease is potentially lifelong. Some patients, in whose body the parasites have developed over several years, are prescribed a course of treatment every month. This is especially true for those people who suffer from impaired immunity due to diseases or taking specialized drugs. The need for lifelong treatment is based on the fact that in a neglected form, the larvae are encapsulated and form cysts, which are almost impossible to remove, you can only suppress their negative effects through drugs.

Important! The drugs listed above are quite powerful and come with some serious side effects. For this reason, the prescription of the drug should be carried out exclusively by a specialist.

Along with treatment with medicines, doctors prescribe special agents and solutions to remove toxic substances from the body that accumulate during the period of infection.

A patient who has undergone this pathology is automatically put on a special account and monitored for 12 months. For the first six months, the survey is carried out every quarter. The main indication for deregistration is a three-fold analysis, which showed negative results all three times.

Treatment with folk remedies

To get rid of parasites, you can use not only very strong medicines, but also traditional methods of treatment. This is the best opportunity to get a positive result from therapy and not harm your body at the same time.

In such a situation, you should use natural antiparasitic agents made on the basis of plant extracts or special brewed herbs. Among the herbs that contain anthelmintic substances, the following options can be noted:

  • Wormwood;
  • Pharmacy chamomile;
  • Tansy;

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    Wormwood

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    Pharmacy chamomile

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    Tansy

  • Medicinal sage;
  • Peppermint;
  • Calendula;

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    Medicinal sage

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    Peppermint

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    Calendula

  • Yarrow;
  • Sumac berry juice;
  • Oak bark.

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    Yarrow

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    Sumach berries

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    Oak bark

After the course of treatment with these herbs, you can drink restorative herbs - dried cress, agaric and Dzhungarian ferula.

Important! Despite the sufficient prevalence of herbs, treatment must be agreed with the attending physician. The specialist must prescribe the type of raw material and the features of its use.

Naturopathic drugs, due to their properties, are able to quickly cope with the mass of types and categories of helminths that have settled in the human body. Modern specialists are able to prescribe herbs to a person not only from adults, but also from eggs, which significantly improves the overall result of the therapy.

No less important in the process of removing helminths and treating strongyloidiasis are a variety of traditional medicine, made by hand from improvised products. Their main advantage is the complete absence of any contraindications and various side effects. Here are two of the most effective recipes:

  1. Garlic with horseradish. You need to take 20 grams of garlic and the same amount of horseradish. All this is filled with vodka in the amount of 1 liter and taken twice a day, 20 ml.
  2. Pomegranate peels. You will need to take the rind of one fruit, chop it thoroughly and boil it in 0.75 liters of water. The resulting infusion should be consumed one glass every 30 minutes, and then take a laxative, preferably a fast acting one.

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    Garlic

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    Horseradish

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    Pomegranate peel

The advantage of these recipes is not only the absence of side effects and contraindications, but also their effectiveness in the fight against various types of parasites.

Preventive measures

In addition to infection when walking barefoot on the ground and in contact with plants and soil, the disease is transmitted through textile objects. Bed linen and clothing must be washed with enzymatic detergents and must be hot dried. Other, but no less important, preventive measures include:

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  1. The highest level of personal hygiene;
  2. Thorough washing of agricultural products;
  3. Drinking only boiled water;
  4. Protection of the skin from the penetration of larvae;
  5. Mandatory disinfection of the source of infection used. A 10% chloride solution is suitable here.

If you have to temporarily visit an endemic area, do not use local bedding in hotels. In the process of taking a shower, it is required to wear replacement special shoes.

In order to completely prevent the disease from becoming infected with these parasites, in order to avoid dangerous consequences and complications, it is worth very carefully cleaning the skin of the hands and protecting it when working with contaminated soil. It is required to boil water taken from lakes and rivers, and also from time to time to carry out anthelmintic preventive treatment. As soon as the characteristic signs of infection appear on the skin, an urgent need to contact the clinic for tests and treatment, if necessary.

Conclusion

Intestinal eel is a fairly common parasite that can transform from an ordinary earthworm into a full-fledged helminth. If a person has an optimally healthy immune system, all symptoms of infection will be minimized. All will cost the appearance of blisters, mild cough, hives, as well as constipation or diarrhea. If the protective forces are somewhat weakened, the formation of a disseminated form of strongyloidosis occurs. In other words, the worms spread throughout the body, which is fatal in 85% of cases. It is for this reason that it is so important to carefully monitor your hygiene and health!

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