Table of contents:
- What is ureaplasma parvum?
- Causes of pathology and methods of infection
- Complications and consequences
- Symptoms and signs
- Symptoms of ureaplasmosis in men
- Risk group
- Forecast and prevention
What is ureaplasma parvum?
- 1 Description
- 2 Epidemiology
- 3 Causes of pathology and methods of infection
- 4 Complications and consequences
- 5 Symptoms and signs
- 6 Symptoms of ureaplasmosis in men
- 7 Diagnostics
- 8 Risk group
- 9.1 Medical advice
- 9.2 Treatment during pregnancy
- 10 Forecast and prevention
Many doctors refer to STDs as upreplasma, the development of which is provoked by bacteria that live on the mucous membrane of the human genital organs. Currently, there are two types of this pathology, one of which is Ureaplasma parvum.
Infection with ureaplasma Parvum
Ureaplasmosis is an intracellular microorganism that is located on the epithelium of the genitourinary system. The enzymes that pathogenic bacteria produce infect the antibodies produced by the human body. But if the response of the immune system is very strong, then the inflammatory process does not begin to develop, in the absence of antibodies to the ureaplasma, the microorganism enters healthy cells, multiplies there in a short period of time and causes pathological changes in the organs.
In medicine, the bacteria Ureaplasma parvum and ureaplasma urealiticum are collectively called “ureaplasma spp”. These microorganisms are capable of causing the development of severe pathology of the genitourinary system, while the disease can proceed for a long period of time with exacerbations and remissions. The pathogenic microorganism produces ammonia, which contributes to the destruction of the mucous membrane with the formation of ulcers and erosions on them.
The disease in modern times is not recognized by most doctors, it is not even recorded in the ICD, since it often does not show any symptoms. That is why the threat of ureaplasma to human health is questionable. What is ureaplasma parvum became known in 2002.
Ureaplasmas are pathogenic microorganisms that do not contribute to the development of ureaplasmosis with healthy human immunity. Otherwise, damage to the tissues of the organs of the genitourinary system occurs. Moreover, Ureaplasma parvum is observed in 50% of people. In every third newborn girl, bacteria are found on the genitals; in boys, this indicator is much lower. Unlike adults, in children, the disease goes away by itself. Ureaplasma is present in 22% of female adolescents. Adults who are sexually active get sick more often. About half of all women on the planet are carriers of this infection, men tend to self-heal.
Causes of pathology and methods of infection
Ureaplasma parvum enters the human body during intercourse with an infection carrier. Most often, those who do not use a condom or have promiscuous sex are infected. It is also possible to get infected through oral and anal sex. It is not uncommon for the infection to spread from mother to fetus during pregnancy or childbirth. Many newborns have an infection in the genitals or nasopharynx.
Doctors say that household transmission is unlikely, but there is a risk of infection in a public toilet or a polluted pool. This usually happens due to microcracks or cuts on the skin of a person, which may be invisible, but through them pathogenic bacteria enter the body. Also, ureaplasma can be transmitted during organ donor transplantation.
The main reason for the development of ureaplasmosis is a decrease in human immunity, in this case, active reproduction of bacteria occurs, which cause the development of an inflammatory process in the organs of the genitourinary system.
Complications and consequences
Ureaplasmosis begins to develop when a person's immune system is impaired. The disease can provoke the development of various complications:
- Infertility or premature birth;
- Cystitis, urethritis, or prostatitis;
- The risk of contracting other STDs increases;
- Pathology of the uterus and appendages;
- Liver disease.
During pregnancy, ureaplasmosis manifests itself more clearly, since a woman has hormonal disorders during this period, immunity is reduced. But for a newborn child, the disease poses a small danger, since over time it goes away on its own. In rare cases, intrauterine fetal dystrophy occurs, and a newborn child develops meningitis or pneumonia. But such cases are rare.
Symptoms and signs
The general symptoms of ureaplasma are in many ways similar to the signs of other STDs and inflammatory diseases of the genitourinary system. In women and men, the symptoms of the disease are somewhat different. The fairer sex mainly has unhealthy discharge and pain. Men experience discomfort while urinating. During intercourse, all sick people also have discomfort, leukorrhea and discharge from the genitals are observed.
The incubation period of ureaplasma proceeds without the manifestation of any signs. With a decrease in immunity, the fairer sex is observed:
- Discharge from the vagina with impurities of pus and blood;
- Uterine bleeding between periods;
- Pain in the abdomen and during intercourse;
- Dysuria and polyuria;
- Intoxication accompanied by fever;
- Swelling and redness of the vaginal mucosa;
- Discharge from the urethra;
If untreated in women, ureaplasmosis will show signs that will provoke the development of inflammation of the ovaries and uterus, infertility.
Symptoms of ureaplasmosis in men
Ureaplasmosis is a sexually transmitted infection. Many men go to the doctor already at the stage of complications of the disease, which is manifested by the following symptoms:
- Itching and burning while urinating;
- Cuts and pain in the urethra and testicles;
- Increased appendages;
- Development of prostatitis;
- Erectile dysfunction.
In men, ureaplasma parvum symptoms can manifest against the background of reduced immunity as early as two weeks after infection, but most often the disease is detected after a few months. If a man has good immunity, bacteria may not start reproducing and simply choke, which leads to self-healing.
If untreated, sperm cells are destroyed in men, their mobility is greatly reduced, which can lead to infertility.
It is very important to make a correct diagnosis by identifying one of the strains of the pathogen, since the methods of therapy depend on this. Ureaplasmosis parvum can cause more severe complications than ureaplasma urealiticum, so there are differences in the duration of treatment for this disease.
Several methods are used to make an accurate diagnosis:
- Enzyme immunoassay (serodiagnosis), in which venous blood is taken on an empty stomach and antibodies to bacteria are determined in it.
- Bacterial culture, which allows you to identify the activity of bacteria, their type, viability and health hazard. To do this, they take urine and blood from a person for analysis, they are placed in an environment that is favorable for the reproduction of microbes. This analysis is quite effective, it also allows you to determine the sensitivity of pathogenic bacteria to antibiotics.
- PCR, which makes it possible to identify even one microorganism by fragments of its DNA and RNA. This diagnostic method allows you to identify the type of infectious agent. But the analysis has one drawback in that it does not determine the level of microbial activity.
Additional diagnostic methods are:
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs;
- Analysis of urine and blood;
These activities are carried out in the case when ureaplasmosis shows symptoms. Also, additional diagnostics helps to establish the development of pathologies that appeared against the background of ureaplasmosis.
The negative consequences that are caused by ureaplasma parvum are diagnosed when no other pathogenic microbes were found in laboratory research, as well as ureaplasma urealiticum.
The following category of women must be screened for the presence of such bacteria as ureaplasma parvum (what it is, described above):
- Those who have chronic inflammation of the genitourinary system;
- Who cannot get pregnant for twelve months of regular sex life;
- Those who cannot tolerate pregnancy;
- Who has had a premature birth.
Ureaplasma parvum treatment involves a comprehensive treatment, including the use of antibacterial and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as immunomodulators, vitamins, NSAIDs and adaptogens.
As antibiotics, the doctor may prescribe tetracyclines or macrolides, for example, Sumamed, Ofloxacin, or Clarithromycin. As immunomodulators used "Timalin" or "Lysozyme", the doctor also prescribes vitamins of group C and B.
For women, doctors recommend placing medicinal suppositories to normalize the vaginal microflora. For this you can use "Atzilakt". Treatment for ureaplasma should include mandatory anti-inflammatory drugs, for example, "Ortofen" or "Ibuprofen".
Therapy is prescribed based on the individual characteristics of a person:
- The sensitivity of the bacteria to the antibacterial drug;
- Medical history;
- Concomitant diseases;
- Certain human conditions;
- Severe pathologies.
Complex therapy will completely get rid of the disease. If re-infection is observed, the patient is prescribed other antibiotics, since bacteria are able to adapt to antibacterial agents. Effective treatment of ureaplasma should take several months if the disease is chronic, and four weeks in the case of an acute form of pathology.
Each time with an exacerbation of the disease, the attending physician should adjust the treatment regimen for ureaplasma. Observing all the rules and recommendations, you can fully recover. You need to be aware that in this case, traditional medicine is useless, since they do not have a high effect compared to synthetic drugs. Rehabilitation therapy should be carried out after the main treatment, it involves the use of vitamins, mineral complexes and dietary supplements.
If the test results are normal, but the symptoms of the disease appear, this may indicate the development of other diseases of the genitourinary system. In this case, it is necessary to undergo additional examination and identify the cause of the disease.
Diet with upeaplasmosis
In addition to drug therapy, doctors recommend adhering to a diet that excludes alcohol and nicotine. It is necessary to exclude fried, spicy and salty foods from the diet; you need to eat more fruits, dairy products. When a person has a ureaplasma disease, he needs to drink more natural juices.
During the entire period of treatment, you need to refrain from sexual intercourse so as not to infect your partner. Also, doctors insist on normalizing the daily routine so that the body gets stronger. In order to avoid negative consequences during therapy, one should not overcool, be under the sun for a long time, get into stressful situations, visit baths, pools and saunas.
When a pathogenic bacterium is detected in a person, it is imperative to diagnose his sexual partner with possible subsequent treatment. After undergoing therapy, the patient is monitored for another three months.
For infected women who are pregnant, the doctor prescribes only "Josamycin", since it does not adversely affect the formation and growth of the fetus. Treatment for ureaplasma in this case should be about ten days. Throughout therapy, it is possible to completely stop the clinical manifestations of the disease. But it is not always possible to get rid of the infection.
Forecast and prevention
The prognosis of the disease is generally favorable, since timely treatment allows you to completely get rid of the disease, even if it takes a long time.
STDs take a long time to heal, so it is better not to get infected with them. Preventive methods are to follow all the rules of intimate hygiene, use contraception, douche with antimicrobial drugs after intercourse, and have a healthy sex life with one partner.
For women, the ureaplasma virus can become dangerous with a decrease in immunity, as it often provokes the development of an inflammatory process in the pelvic organs. Most of the complications are manifested by insufficiently pronounced symptoms, so timely treatment is not carried out. Doctors recommend that women be screened regularly for infections.
Some doctors recommend for men to use Mirimistin solution in case of unprotected intercourse with an unverified partner. But you need to use it infrequently, as it can cause burns on the mucous membrane of the genitals.
Those who have had this disease are advised to avoid casual relationships. They need to lead a healthy lifestyle, monitor the state of the immune system, periodically undergo a physical examination by a gynecologist. All this will help protect yourself not only from ureplasma, but also from many other STDs.