Table of contents:
- Prevention of hepatic fluke: what rules should be followed to avoid infection
- Human infection
- Clinical manifestations
- Prevention measures
Video: Hepatic Fluke In The Human Body - Prevention
2023 Author: Riley Dean | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 09:15
Prevention of hepatic fluke: what rules should be followed to avoid infection
- 1 Human infection
- 2 Clinical manifestations
- 3 Diagnostics
- 4 Treatment
- 5 Preventive measures
In modern medicine, there are hundreds of parasitic organisms, some of them choose the human body as their habitat. Some parasites practically do not manifest themselves in any way and may not be detected for a long time, while others are capable of provoking serious systemic disorders.
The hepatic fluke is one of the dangerous facultative parasites that can clog the bile ducts and disrupt the normal functioning of the liver. It is extremely important to observe preventive measures against hepatic flukes, especially in settlements where drinking water does not undergo sufficient purification.
The structure of the body, the presence of special suckers and processes, allow the parasite to securely attach itself to the walls of blood vessels and use the host's body as a nutrient medium. The outer integuments of the helminth's body are white, the peripheral tissues are gray. Has an oral cavity through which food is supplied.
The hepatic fluke chooses the body of cattle as the final host, it is there that from the larval stage it develops to a sexually mature individual. Helminth eggs enter the water along with the feces of a sick animal. The aquatic environment is necessary for the larvae to hatch from the eggs, which can move in the water column with the help of special cilia.
The intermediate hosts of the parasite are mollusks and small crustaceans; in their body, the liver fluke is covered with a special protective shell and re-enters the environment. The fluke enters the body of the final host through the infected grass, the cycle is closed.
Since nematodes of this species belong to facultative parasites, they can pass the main development cycles outside the human body. Infection most often occurs when the larvae of the parasite, which are at the last stage of development, enter the body with infected meat of cattle or through contaminated water.
Due to digestive enzymes, the protective shell of the larva begins to gradually collapse, the parasite migrates to the liver area and penetrates into the bile ducts.
The final development of the parasite in the host's body occurs precisely in the bile ducts; the parasite matures to a mature individual in 10-15 weeks. After puberty, the helminth begins to actively reproduce, the appearance of new individuals provokes the closure of the ducts and causes stagnation of bile.
In the patient's body, the normal process of digestion is disrupted, undigested food provokes serious allergic reactions and rashes throughout the body.
The hepatic fluke, in addition to allergic reactions, can provoke disturbances in the normal functioning of the nervous system, with a prolonged course of the disease, infection of the bile ducts occurs, impaired patency of the gallbladder, atony of the gallbladder, sclerosis and cholestasis develop.
The acute stage of the disease can be characterized by the presence of ulcerative lesions and necrosis on the surface of the liver.
There are two stages of the disease, depending on the symptoms identified in the patient. So, after the incubation period, which on average lasts from one week to two months, the acute stage of the disease begins. If you do not take measures to eliminate the parasite, the disease can develop into a chronic stage.
In the acute stage of the disease, intoxication of the body is expressed. So, the patient is constantly in a fever - the body temperature can rise to 40 degrees for several days. The increase in temperature is accompanied by chills and pain in the muscles.
If not properly treated, fever may not go away for a long time. The further development of the disease is characterized by the appearance of painful sensations in the area of the digestive tract, which do not depend on food intake. There is a feeling of nausea, there is an urge to vomit. Sometimes patients are diagnosed with problems in the work of the cardiovascular system.
The chronic stage of the disease is characterized by symptoms of a violation of the normal functionality of the liver and bile ducts. The liver fluke parasitizes mainly in the bile ducts and irritates the nerve endings, which contributes to the appearance of severe pain in the abdominal cavity. In the chronic stage of the disease, the patient may develop an upset stomach and anemia.
The severity of the above symptoms will depend on the activity of parasites and the rate of appearance of new individuals, as well as on the state of the patient's immunity.
The presence of a hepatic fluke in the body can be diagnosed only by the severe symptoms observed in the patient. Other diagnostic techniques will not be informative. This is due to the fact that the parasites entering the body are at the larval stage and a certain time must pass for their full development. So, the eggs of the parasite in the feces of a person will appear no earlier than 3-4 months after infection.
When diagnosing a disease, doctors exclude the presence in the body of other types of helminths and third-party diseases that can manifest themselves with similar symptoms.
Transit eggs of the parasite can sometimes be found in the body. They enter the body when eating the liver with the eggs of the parasite. In this form, the parasite is not able to develop in the human body, so the eggs are excreted along with the feces.
For a final diagnosis, you must undergo at least two laboratory examinations. Additional research is carried out after antihelminthic therapy.
The eggs of the liver fluke are found in feces or in samples from the duodenum. The eggs are yellowish in color, they are flattened on one side and have a special opening for the larvae to exit. If, in the process of diagnostic studies, doubts arise about the reasons for the nature of eggs, the patient can be sent for a second analysis after 2-3 weeks.
To diagnose the fluke, an immunological study is also used, which allows detecting specific antibodies in the blood serum. A general blood test shows a slight increase in leukocyte and eosinophil counts, therefore this study is considered not informative.
Based on the results obtained, a decision is made on further treatment. Anthelmintic drugs can be prescribed only after the patient's state of health has stabilized.
To do this, the doctor prescribes therapy aimed at removing the toxic waste products of the parasite from the body, it is also important to give up junk food and follow diet number 5 throughout the treatment and within six months after getting rid of the parasite.
The diet provides for the refusal of fatty, salty, smoked, fried and other foods, which gives an additional load on the damaged organs. Alcohol should be avoided during treatment.
As soon as the patient's condition stabilizes, the doctor prescribes antiparasitic drugs. Triclabendazole and bithionol are especially popular. You should not prescribe drugs yourself, they contain substances that are toxic to the body and in the wrong dosage can significantly harm.
Treatment for hepatic fluke is not only difficult but also costly. To protect your body from the parasite, it is enough to follow simple rules.
Preventive measures against the fluke are carried out on two levels - on the personal and public. Personal measures should be followed on an ongoing basis:
- All vegetables, fruits and garden herbs must be washed under running water before use, especially if they were watered with water from stagnant reservoirs during their growth.
- Raw water from stagnant reservoirs must be boiled before use. If there is nowhere to boil the water, it is necessary to filter through a thick cloth.
Check the meat of farm animals for parasites.
With regard to public preventive measures, this category includes the mandatory veterinary examination of livestock for the presence of larvae. Sometimes agricultural enterprises carry out the destruction of molluscs in nearby stagnant bodies of water to prevent contamination.
If you adhere to the described preventive measures, infection can be avoided, and then there will be no point in expensive treatment. In case of damage to the body by parasites, it is extremely important to diagnose the problem in time and begin to eliminate it.
Modern drugs effectively fight against helminths; after healing, the body develops a stable immunity that prevents re-infection.
Hepatic fluke. Development cycle of the hepatic fluke. Diagnostics of the hepatic fluke. Ways of infection by hepatic fluke. Prevention
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