Table of contents:
- How to treat toxoplasmosis in pregnant women
- What it is
- Infection mechanism
- Disease types
- Why is toxoplasmosis dangerous during pregnancy
- Diagnosis of the disease
- Toxoplasmosis treatment
- Prevention of toxoplasmosis
Video: Toxoplasmosis During Pregnancy - Analysis, Symptoms And Consequences
How to treat toxoplasmosis in pregnant women
- 1 What is it
- 2 Mechanism of infection
- 3 Types of disease
- 4 What is the danger of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy
- 5 Diagnosis of the disease
- 6 Treatment of toxoplasmosis
7 Prevention of toxoplasmosis
- 7.1 Rule # 1: Good Hygiene
- 7.2 Rule # 2: Protective Gloves
- 7.3 Rule # 3: Limit contact with animals
- 7.4 Rule # 4: Careful Handling of Products
One of the most common tests during pregnancy is the toxoplasmosis test. This infection is detected at the beginning of pregnancy, and a positive result leads to panic.
What it is
What is toxoplasmosis
Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by infection with a parasitic infection of the Toxoplasma gondii species. Man and some animals serve as intermediate hosts. This parasite can finally mature and continue the cycle only in the cat's body. Due to the fact that pets are extremely common and loved, it is possible to become infected with toxoplasmosis even through accidental contact. Toxoplasmosis is especially dangerous during pregnancy, because not only the woman, but also her child is at risk.
Most often, infection occurs when eating insufficiently processed food. Toxoplasmosis is often found in pork and lamb, dairy products, and eggs. You can also get infected if you do not follow the rules of personal hygiene, for example, without washing your hands before eating after playing with a cat. It is imperative to wear protective gloves if cleaning is carried out in a cat litter box, because infection from excrement and its residues occurs very often.
There are several forms of damage to the body by this infection. Depending on the type, the symptoms and prognosis for recovery differ. At the stage of infection, you can only learn about adversity by laboratory means, because the disease is not characterized by bright signs.
What are the types of toxoplasmosis:
- The acute form of the disease proceeds with an increase in temperature, inflammation of the lymph nodes (most often in the armpit), as well as general weakness and apathy. This onset is often confused with the common cold, so no appropriate treatment is given.
- Cerebral toxoplasmosis is characterized by pain or sensation in certain parts of the body. The patient may complain of severe headache and paralysis.
- With ocular toxoplasmosis, vision functions are impaired, pain in the eyes, partial or complete blindness.
- Common toxoplasmosis can have different symptoms, depending on the location of the lesions. Most often, the heart muscle and the pulmonary system are affected.
- Chronic toxoplasmosis is characterized by decreased memory and concentration, neurotic reactions and digestive disorders. Most often, specific myositis and myocarditis appear.
Depending on the degree of damage and localization of the infection, appropriate corrective measures are prescribed.
Why is toxoplasmosis dangerous during pregnancy
Toxoplasmosis disease during the period of bearing a child is fraught with additional problems for the future of the mother and baby. The danger of this disease is stronger in the early stages. In the first trimester of pregnancy, this can lead to miscarriage and intrauterine fetal death. Even with a safely transferred illness, deviations may be in the further development of the child. Most often, a baby can be born with pathologies of the brain, visual function and liver.
The situation is somewhat different if a woman has previously had this ailment. In this case, the body develops strong immunity, which extends to the child. In any case, the recommendations of doctors cannot be ignored. For the presence of the causative agent of toxoplasmosis in pregnant women, it is imperative to be examined in order to develop an optimal treatment strategy.
Diagnosis of the disease
Diagnosis of the disease
A special serological blood test will help determine the presence of toxoplasmosis. It is performed early, usually immediately after the pregnant woman is registered with the antenatal clinic. Early diagnosis has its advantages, because in the presence of a "fresh" disease, the situation is dangerous with the likelihood of miscarriage. In some cases, artificial termination of pregnancy is recommended, because the child is more likely to be born defective.
Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, the norm in the analyzes of which is determined by two indicators: immunoglobulin type G and M (IgM, IgG). In this case, the classification of this indicator is of great importance. If IgG is detected without traces of class M antibodies, there is no threat to the child's life. This means that antibodies were formed a long time ago, and the risk of re-infection is minimal. In general, stable immunity is developed for a long time - from 10 years or more. Thus, re-infection does not pose a threat to the child and mother.
When detecting infections of both types in the blood, the doctor diagnoses the chronic type of toxoplasmosis, in which the disease is already quite old and has been in the body for more than a year. For confirmation, it is recommended to re-take the test after two weeks, and not immediately start treatment.
The opposite situation - the analysis for toxoplasmosis in pregnant women showed the absence of both infections. Despite the fact that with such a development of events, the prognosis would seem to be more favorable, this means that the woman has never had this ailment before, therefore, she must be extremely careful. With the initial infection, the threat to the child will be much stronger, therefore, personal hygiene should be as much as possible.
If only IgM is present in the blood, the infection is considered "fresh", which determines a further unfavorable prognosis for pregnancy. Toxoplasmosis diagnosed at a later date is subject to mandatory treatment.
With a positive result for toxoplasmosis antibodies during pregnancy, you should definitely contact your doctor to draw up an adequate treatment plan. The therapy plan involves taking antibiotics, therefore, treatment up to 24 weeks is considered very dangerous in terms of possible consequences for the fetus. That is why the treatment of toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is more successful in the later stages, when such terrible harm will not be caused to the health of the unborn baby.
The prescribed dosage and type of antibacterial agents must be prescribed by the attending physician. Self-medication in this case threatens with even more threatening consequences, so in no case should you risk it. Usually drugs of the Rovamycin and pyrimethamine groups are prescribed. Against the background of taking these drugs, immunostimulating agents are additionally used, an additional intake of folic acid is recommended to prevent problems of hematopoietic function.
Toxoplasmosis in pregnant women is also treated with the use of fortifying agents, probiotics and other special agents. At the same time, the action of drugs is not aimed at destroying parasites, but at reducing their activity, which will minimize the risk to the carrier.
After childbirth, even with a successful completion, the child is necessarily examined, for which a number of special tests are carried out. This is necessary to eliminate the risk of pathologies and to correct them in a timely manner.
Prevention of toxoplasmosis
Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is easier to prevent than cure. That is why every woman should know the degree of risk and possible causes of this disease. Domestic cats are thought to carry infections. At the same time, most meat and dairy products can be infected with this parasite, and without proper heat treatment, they can enter the human body.
There is also another important point: the infection occurs by the fecal-oral route of matured parasites from cat feces. Thus, the source can be other animals, food, dust, and even direct contact with clothing, shoes and other items.
There is no perfect disinfection method, so uninvited guests may find themselves not only on the street, but also enter the house on the sole of their shoes, along with a trash can, a pet dog or purchased food. To prevent possible infection with toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, it is important to observe the following rules.
Rule # 1: Good Hygiene
Wash your hands regularly, do not pet stray animals, and keep your home clean. These rules are extremely simple, but at the same time effective. The routes of infection with toxoplasmosis are extremely diverse, but if you follow the rules of personal hygiene, the chances are much lower.
Regular airing and dry cleaning of carpets and upholstered furniture also work well. During pregnancy, it is best to limit contact with aggressive detergents, so specialized services and modern miracles of home techniques will come to the rescue. A washing vacuum cleaner, a steamer and an air purifier are far from useless purchases, especially on the eve of a family replenishment.
Rule # 2: protective gloves
Be sure to use special protection when working with the ground, replanting houseplants, and washing the cat litter box. This will help minimize the risk of direct skin contact with the toxoplasmosis pathogen. If possible, avoid such work so as not to put your child's health at risk. It is known that the maturation of the parasite takes a certain time, so fresh excrement cannot be a source of infection. That is why, the cat litter box should be removed as it is used, to prevent a source of infection for the entire family.
Rule # 3: limit contact with animals
Many doctors advise getting rid of pets while waiting for the baby. One can disagree with this opinion, because they are also part of our family. If a cat or dog has lived with you for a long time, the more likely you have already had latent toxoplasmosis. At the same time, you should not play with fire and specially select stray animals, sleep with cats or dogs, or kiss them.
A pet must be vaccinated, and regular preventive measures against parasites should become the norm. By the way, the likelihood of contracting toxoplasmosis from a domestic cat that does not go outside is approximately equal to the chances of catching a disease from a dog, because these pets do not hesitate to pick up any edible leftovers on the street. In addition, parasites can also get on the pet's coat or paws while walking.
Rule # 4: careful handling of food
Careful processing of products
The causative agents of toxoplasmosis can persist under favorable conditions for up to two years without losing their viability. When exposed to heat, they die almost immediately, so the best prevention would be sufficient processing of everything cooked. It is possible to become infected with toxoplasmosis through food even without direct contact with animals, because the quality of meat products, vegetables and fruits is difficult to control at home.
That is why it is imperative to knead all fresh foods well, preferably even soaking them in hot water. Semi-finished and finished products are also best cooked. To prevent toxoplasmosis during pregnancy, you should not get carried away with semi-fried steaks, sushi and other not completely cooked foods. In addition to toxoplasmosis, there are many more types of parasites, which are especially dangerous during the period of bearing a child, because in this case, two lives are at risk at once.
Toxoplasmosis during pregnancy and its consequences for the fetus is difficult to predict, because it all depends on the "freshness" of the infection and the severity of the course. In the early stages, this disease is especially dangerous, because it can lead to irreversible pathologies of the child's development. To avoid this, you should definitely follow the well-known hygiene rules, as well as limit contact with animals. Reasonable precautions can help carry a healthy baby without endangering his life.