Table of contents:
- Chlamydia lung damage
- Features of the disease
- Symptoms of the disease
- Diagnosing lung pathology
- Therapeutic effects
- Preventive actions
Video: Chlamydia Pneumonia - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment
Chlamydia lung damage
- 1 Features of the disease
- 2 Symptoms of the disease
3 Diagnosis of lung pathology
3.1 Methods of transmission of the parasitic agent
- 4 Therapeutic effects
- 5 Preventive measures
Chlamydia refers to intracellular parasites that cause various pathologies in the human body. Chlamydia is considered to be a venereal infection, but the parasitic agent affects the respiratory system, eyes and nasopharyngeal mucosa. The risk group includes children and people aged 20 to 55 years. What is the danger of chlamydia pneumonia, and how to avoid infection, we will tell in more detail.
Features of the disease
Chlamydia is a microparasite that settles inside the epithelial cell of the human mucosa. Respiratory problems are caused by three types of parasitic agents:
- Pneumoniae - when infected, bronchitis or mild pneumonia develops. The disease is transient and quickly becomes chronic. Children and the elderly are at risk.
- Psittaci - transmitted to humans from birds, causes pathologies: psittacosis, encephalitis, atypical pneumonia. The risk group includes people of any age with weakened immunity.
- Trachomatis - mainly causes urogenital infection, but it can affect the respiratory system, nasopharyngeal mucosa. In a newborn child, it causes pneumonia, immediately in an acute form.
Chlamydia pneumonia can take two forms:
- Elementary (refer to infectious forms);
- Reticular body (a form for life outside the cell of another organism).
The agent enters the body in a reticular form, where it is rebuilt into an elementary one. In the reticular stage, the parasite has metabolic activity. Penetrating into the host's cell, chlamydia is immediately rearranged into a reproductive form. Reproduction takes place inside the host cell by binary fission. New bodies break through the host cell walls and enter new ones. New bodies can also leave the host cell under the influence of exocytosis. The entire cycle from infection to the appearance of new microorganisms takes 48 hours. An infected person does not feel any changes in the body. Chlamydia is asymptomatic in 90% of cases.
The disease is diagnosed already in the late stages. It is difficult to determine the parasitic microorganism, and by mistake, experts begin to treat secondary pathology. Requires therapy for the primary disease - chlamydia.
Chlamydia affects the respiratory system and causes pneumonia in 10–20% of infections. There is a recurrence of infection in preschool children with an interval of four years. After the age of 20, chlamydial pneumonia mainly affects men, the fact is associated with smoking and an unhealthy lifestyle. Elderly people are also susceptible to disease, as they have a weakened immune system.
In 5-15% of pregnant women, the parasite is observed in the mucous membrane of the cervix. During childbirth, a child receives a pathogenic agent in 20-30% of cases. Of all infected newborns, 25% of the disease manifests itself as symptoms of conjunctivitis and nasopharyngitis. 10-15% of newborns develop pneumonia at 8 weeks of development.
Symptoms of the disease
Chlamydia pneumoniae infection occurs without visible symptoms. In 30% of adolescents or young children, symptoms of bronchitis are observed in the first ten days:
- Dry cough;
- Redness of the throat;
- Inflammatory process of the organs of vision;
- The temperature is above 37.5 degrees, which persists and does not subside;
- Joint pain;
- Skin rashes;
- Disruption of the nervous system.
The clinical picture caused by the parasite pneumoniae resembles the symptomatology of microplasma etiology. Infection is dangerous for an elderly person, since the weakened body does not fight the infection, and the symptoms have a more aggressive form.
Pathology develops gradually. The first few days after infection, the incubation period occurs. The parasite freezes and waits for the human immunity to stop reacting aggressively to it. The incubation period lasts three days. Then the symptoms of damage to the upper respiratory system appear: rhinitis, pharyngitis, sinusitis. To the stage of pneumonia, the pathology progresses within 3 weeks. Chlamydial infection is distinguished from a common viral disease by symptoms:
- Rapid onset of hoarseness;
A high temperature is observed only the first three days after the end of the incubation period of the parasitic agent. Further, the disease develops without the accompanying hyperthermia.
The cough is dry or moist with scanty phlegm. Duration of cough from 2 weeks or more. Not all types of antibiotics relieve the condition, and the cough persists. When listening, wheezing appears directly above the person's lungs.
When the parasite trachomatis is infected, the dry cough is intermittent. Before each cough, the person takes a short breath. Children show anxiety, appetite disappears. In adults, the nervous system is affected: a person experiences stress, becomes irritable.
Diagnosing lung pathology
The disease is difficult to diagnose. By mistake, specialists begin to treat ARVI and the pathology progresses.
The infection is diagnosed in the following ways:
- Isolation of the culture of the sources of the disease. The diagnostic method requires a long time, financial influence and labor. But it is effective. The patient is forced to wait for a doctor's prescription for a long time, which can lead to the development of secondary pathologies.
- Serotyping. Infection is determined by the release of antibodies that appear in the patient's body. With a progressive disease, Igm antibodies increase by 4 times. It is difficult to determine the presence of IgG antibodies, since they can only appear 4 weeks after the parasitic agent enters the host. A month later, IgG antibodies are constantly observed in the blood.
- ELISA blood test. Helps to determine at what stage of development the disease is. The analysis is effective at the initial stage of the disease, as it allows you to notice the parasite in time and start treatment.
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Modern technique. The research is carried out at the microbiological level.
When decoding a blood test, titers are used. If the indicators are on the border with the norm, then a second examination is done after 2–34 weeks. The most effective is the PCR examination technique, since it accurately determines the type of parasite and the stage of its development.
Methods of transmission of the parasitic agent
Infection can spread in several ways:
- Through mucous discharge at home;
- Airborne drip;
- Contact with a sick bird or animal.
Not only wild birds are dangerous. Poultry should be treated with caution: ducks, chickens, geese, pigeons. Poultry can be infected from the wild through excrement, feed.
In everyday life, infection is possible in public places, through personal hygiene items. Newborn children and old people are in a special risk group. If an adult can resist the parasite, then a weakened or unprepared immune system will not be able to defend itself. Children under one year old mostly get infection from adult family members.
Antibiotics for chlamydial pneumonia
Chlamydial pneumonia responds well to antibiotics. But an incorrectly selected course of antibiotic leads to an increased resistance of the microorganism. Treatment with fluoroquinolones is effective, but drugs are contraindicated until the age of 18 and are not suitable for pregnant women. The group of fluoroquinolones includes drugs: Hemifloxacin, Gatifloxacin, Avelox, Zimar. The microorganism lends itself to the action of the tetracycline group.
In combination with an antibiotic, an immunostimulating drug is prescribed: Taktivin, Eleutherococcus or Aralia Tincture.
At the same time, funds are prescribed to maintain the functioning of the liver, since the antibiotic gives an additional load on this organ. Suitable drugs: Phosphogliv, Essentiale Forte. Children and the elderly are additionally prescribed vitamins A and E as an antioxidant.
Electrophoresis for the treatment of pneumonia
In combination with drug treatment, hardware is prescribed: electrophoresis, ultrasound.
A qualified specialist, before prescribing a course of drugs, will additionally conduct diagnostics:
- Ultrasound of the liver.
An effective tactic of therapy is selected taking into account in a complex: the results of the patient's examination, medical history, the presence of chronic diseases, age and gender characteristics. In some cases, an examination by a whole group of specialists will be required.
No vaccine was invented against chlamydial pneumonia, since the infection does not multiply separately outside the cell. You can prevent the disease, subject to the rules:
- Compliance with personal hygiene standards: using an individual toothbrush, comb, towel, washcloth; washing hands;
- Minimize contact with sick people, visit less: hospitals, public places;
- Veterinary control of pets is carried out at least twice a year;
- Do not contact with wild animals and birds;
- Taking vitamins is necessary, especially in spring and autumn;
- A condom is used during sexual intercourse;
- Daily walks in the fresh air, sports that will help strengthen the immune system.
A dangerous situation is when chlamydial pneumonia occurs without visible symptoms. The patient is a carrier of the disease and is unaware of it. It is difficult to immediately detect the presence of a parasite, and the wrong treatment is mistakenly prescribed by a specialist. Antibiotic therapy is more effective in the initial stages of infection, when the infection did not have time to provoke a large number of pathologies.