Chlamydia - How Is It Transmitted And How Can You Get Infected? Transmission Routes

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Chlamydia - How Is It Transmitted And How Can You Get Infected? Transmission Routes
Chlamydia - How Is It Transmitted And How Can You Get Infected? Transmission Routes

Video: Chlamydia - How Is It Transmitted And How Can You Get Infected? Transmission Routes

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Video: Chlamydia - sexually transmitted infection (video) 2023, February
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What are the ways of chlamydia infection

Content

  • 1 Why is there so much fuss about infection
  • 2 Chlamydia of various types
  • 3 How does chlamydia enter the human body

    • 3.1 Chlamydia infection through sexual contact
    • 3.2 Danger of contracting chlamydia during pregnancy
  • 4 Household methods of infection with chlamydia

    • 4.1 Transmission of chlamydia to humans from animals
    • 4.2 Poor hygiene
  • 5 Airborne transmission of chlamydia

    5.1 Through kiss or saliva

  • 6 In conclusion

One of the most types of sexually transmitted infections is chlamydia, which can make life difficult for both an adult and a child. Those who do not know how chlamydia is transmitted and what methods of prevention allow to reduce cases of infection to naught fall into the risk zone. Experts will tell you more about all issues of transmission of chlamydia to humans.

Why is there so much fuss about infection

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What is chlamydia

In nature, there are a huge number of bacteria, microbes, viruses, but not all are considered dangerous to humans. Some benefit or die on their own, without even having time to declare themselves with vivid symptoms, because the immune system knows its work.

  1. Having settled on the cell wall, the infection penetrates into the cell nucleus and begins the process of division, feeding on its contents;
  2. When the division process is completed and there is not enough space for the further phase of the pathogen's reproduction, the cell film breaks and leads to its death;
  3. But chlamydiae continue their journey, because they need a new environment for the next reproduction (the amount of parasitic infection has increased, which means that more human cells are under attack).

This circle can be endless if the immune system is unable to fight back. But chlamydiae are able to disguise themselves, falling into so-called hibernation to attack cells at the first weakening of the immune system.

The more productive the activity of chlamydia, the more serious the health problems in a person infected with chlamydia. But the infection is able to parasitize only on one type of body cells - cylindrical, which form the mucous epithelium:

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  • In the cervix in women;
  • In the urinary tract of every person;
  • In the conjunctiva of the eye;
  • In the mouth and throat;
  • In the intestine, more precisely, in the colon;
  • In the lungs.

Through other cells of the epithelium, the bacterium is not able to enter the body. Having settled in one area, chlamydia move freely from one cell to another. In some circumstances, the pathogen enters the bloodstream, which increases the rate of reproduction of chlamydia in the body. The process of cell penetration and reproduction lasts 2–3 days. The consequences are very diverse, from a decrease in immunity and the possibility of catching any disease to infertility or pathologies in newborns. Therefore, both a woman and a man should understand how chlamydia is transmitted and what routes of infection are known to modern medicine.

Chlamydia of various types

Despite the fact that chlamydia is called any damage to the body by chlamydia, there are still differences in the form of bacteria and the conditions for their entry into the epithelium. The following types of bacteria are distinguished:

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  • Chlamydia trachomatis (trachomatis) - is transmitted sexually from person to person or in a household way, if the liquid (semen, saliva, pus) with chlamydia gets on the mucous membrane of the eye through the hands, personal hygiene items or underwear.
  • Chlamydia pneumonia (pneumonia) - affects the lungs and respiratory tract, is transmitted by airborne droplets during close contact with a sick person, if he sneezes, coughs or splashes saliva when talking. Not only women and men are at risk of infection, but also children.
  • Chlamydia psittatsi (psittaci) - the infection is transmitted from birds through the air through particles of dust or droplets, which got these chlamydia. The mucous membranes of the respiratory tract, kidneys and joints are affected. It cannot be transmitted from person to person.
  • Chlamydia felis (Felis) multiply on the mucous membrane of the eye in cats, even domestic cats. When a person comes into contact with an infected cat, conjunctivitis can appear, which is perfectly treatable and does not cause complications if the problem is not started.
  • Chlamydia abortus (Abortus) most often affects the mucous membranes of animals, provoking miscarriages. A woman becomes infected in a rare case, only when caring for a sick animal, for example, livestock. If the infection reaches a pregnant woman, there is a threat of interruption and miscarriage of the embryo.

The main problems for humans come from chlamydia trachomatis and pneumonia, which settle in the body and parasitize on the cylindrical cells of the epithelium of various organs. Is there always a risk of contracting these pathogens of chlamydia or is the circle of people limited? It all depends on the person's lifestyle, his hygiene and compliance with a number of prevention rules.

How does chlamydia enter the human body?

Based on the fact that the main threat in terms of the frequency of infection of people is chlamydia of the trachomatis type, doctors distinguish several ways of transmission of chlamydia from person to person:

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  • Sexual contact of any type - classic, oral, anal.
  • Household when in contact with household items, personal hygiene, linen, on which bacteria are present. This is possible if a person uses other people's things, without thinking that a friend or close person is sick with chlamydia.
  • Airborne, if a person infected with chlamydia, which causes pneumonia, sneezes or coughs on a neighbor and gives him a large amount of mucus, saliva containing infection. But the contact must be very close, because the microbes of this group cannot exist without joining the cell.
  • Infection of the fetus intrauterine or during delivery in a natural way. Chlamydia is transmitted to the child from the mother if the bacteria gets on the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, mouth during the passage through the birth canal.

To understand how chlamydia is transmitted in each case, one should study in detail all the pathways of infection.

Chlamydia infection through sexual contact

Doctors, especially gynecologists, do not get tired of repeating that a condom is a protection against all sexually transmitted problems and unwanted pregnancies. In the case of chlamydia infection, this recommendation is relevant, because the parasite settles and multiplies precisely on the mucous organs that are involved during sex.

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  • Both women and men are at risk of transmitting chlamydia through classic sex. But for ladies, the possibility of infection is higher, because there are more cylindrical cells in the female genital organs.
  • But do not forget that with anal penetration of a partner, chlamydia can gain a foothold in the epithelium of the rectum, where there are an abundance of cylindrical cells. From the rectum, the pathogen can enter the bloodstream and reach other organs in order to continue the process of reproduction and parasitism.
  • Oral sex without protection with a sick person allows infection to penetrate the mouth, larynx and respiratory tract, provoking various complications due to cell destruction. If semen or mucus gets on the mucous membrane of the eye, this will lead to the development of a disease that is popularly called trachoma. The danger is that a person can completely lose sight at an advanced stage.

Chlamydia is transmitted sexually both from man to woman, and vice versa. If sex was once, then you should not delude yourself that the problem could be bypassed. Even during first sex with a partner who has chlamydia and does not use a condom knowingly or unknowingly about the presence of the virus, infection can be mild. The more episodes, the higher the percentage of bacteria in a person who has not had a sexually transmitted disease before that point.

Yes, a woman or a man infected with chlamydia may not be aware of the disease if there are no vivid symptoms. But the problem is also that people do not like to seek medical help under such circumstances and are looking for ways to self-medicate without assuming that they can harm their partner.

Therefore, not having constant sexual relations with one person, it is worth taking care of safe sex so that the next pleasure does not turn into a serious problem. Chlamydia is treatable, but it requires serious effort, money and time. If the disease becomes chronic, then chlamydia can seriously ruin a person's life.

Danger of chlamydia infection during pregnancy

The close relationship between a man and a woman does not end with pregnancy. Sometimes the expectant mother is not yet aware of the fact of fertilization, because the term is still small. But even knowing what happened, the couple does not want to forget about intimacy, if there are no contraindications for health.

Circumstances are different and the fact of transmission of a sexually transmitted infection to a pregnant woman from a partner who has chlamydia is possible.

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  • At this stage of life, both the expectant mother and the child are at risk. Chlamydia, getting on the mucous membrane of the vagina, cervix or deeper, gradually multiplies and can move into the uterine cavity, creating a threat of miscarriage or fetal damage. The shorter the gestation period, the more likely it is that the embryo can be rejected by the uterus due to internal changes and the development of inflammation.
  • If infection with chlamydia in a pregnant woman did not affect the development of the fetus, then the threat of infection of the baby remains if the birth occurs naturally through the birth canal. After the bladder that protected the embryo ruptures, the face and body come into direct contact with the epithelium of the mother's birth canal. Chlamydia is transmitted to the newborn, which affects the respiratory tract, eyes, genitals. If doctors establish the fact of chlamydia disease in the expectant mother, at the birth of the baby, certain procedures are carried out to eliminate this disease.
  • Chlamydia is transmitted to a woman not only through direct contact with a sick partner, but also through artificial insemination with donor sperm, if the center staff, due to their negligence, did not conduct additional diagnostics of the biomaterial.

Chlamydiae can attach to sperm and penetrate into the female uterus, where there are all conditions for their parasitism. If part of the sperm, when introduced into the uterine cavity, gets on the mucous membrane of the vagina, cervix or tubes, the bacteria will begin to multiply from these places, but the threat of termination of pregnancy will remain.

Household methods of chlamydia infection

Transmission of chlamydia to humans from an animal

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Transmission of chlamydia to humans from an animal

Sometimes the culprit for the transmission of a dangerous disease is not a person, but an animal, which may be in close contact with the owner or a person working with animals. But the causative agent in this case is a special type of chlamydia that affects the eyes (chlamydial conjunctivitis) or the respiratory tract (chlamydial pneumonia). Carriers are cats and birds.

At risk are both adults and children who like to pick up different animals, even despite the prohibition of their parents. It is essentially a dirty hand disease where a child rubs his eyes or puts his fingers in his mouth. Cases of this route of transmission of chlamydia are rare and easily treatable, because they have special symptoms.

Lack of hygiene

The fact of neglect of the rules of hygiene or the forced use of objects of a sick person belongs to the household route of transmission of chlamydia. Penetration into the body is possible through the mucous membranes of the eyes, genitals, mouth, if the bacteria reaches the throat. The reason for the defeat in a household way are commonplace things:

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  • Dirty hands that have forgotten to wash before eating, or that the child has rubbed their eyes with them, put them in their mouths on the street or in other public places. For example, I did not wash my hands after using the toilet, where I touched the rim of the toilet.
  • Using a toothbrush, a washcloth of a stranger who is infected with chlamydia. A moist environment allows bacteria to remain viable for hours or days. If circumstances have arisen that force the use of other people's items, you should take care of their disinfection.
  • Using a public toilet is a direct route for chlamydia to enter the genitals from the rim of the toilet or doorknobs if used by an infected person.
  • Underwear is a transmission path for chlamydia if the panties have not been treated with high temperatures, such as an iron. Using other people's things, you can get a portion of chlamydia that remained on the linen from the real owner.
  • Through food, it is possible for the pathogen to enter the body if poultry meat cooked in violation of the thermal regime is served. Dirty fruit from street stalls can be infected with chlamydia. But these cases are isolated.
  • Public baths and saunas can be a breeding ground for pathogens of chlamydia if the staff does not follow the rules for cleaning and disinfecting premises. But this route of infection is rare.

Cases of domestic chlamydia are extremely rare compared to sexual transmission, but they should still not be forgotten to eliminate the risk of infection.

Airborne transmission of chlamydia

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This method of infection is relevant only for one type of bacteria - Chlamydia pneumonia (pneumonia). It parasitizes only on the walls of the respiratory tract, causing a specific disease "chlamydial pneumonia".

The infection attaches to the cylindrical cells of the epithelium of the lungs, bronchi, larynx and kills them by a rapid multiplication process, constantly migrating from a devastated cell to a living one and taking its energy.

Transmission of chlamydia is possible from a sick person to a healthy person through phlegm, which flies out of the nose and mouth when coughing and sneezing. If an infected person neglects the rules of etiquette in society, then the spray will fly in different directions and can fall on both the adult and the child.

If the amount of active chlamydia in the mucus is large, then infection with chlamydial pneumonia through the air is possible. But with a minimal amount of bacteria, it is likely that the sputum that has gotten will not be enough for the pathogen to penetrate inside.

Through kiss or saliva

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You should not be afraid of the transmission of chlamydia from a woman to a man and vice versa when kissing through saliva, because conditions in the oral cavity are unsuitable for this bacterium. The risk of infection arises only at the last stage of chlamydia, when the symptoms of the disease cannot be hidden and the patient is no longer up to kissing.

Kisses of a child on the cheek are also not dangerous if parents or relatives are diagnosed with chlamydia. But it is better to exclude these tendernesses until they are completely cured in order to protect the baby from serious problems.

Finally

After studying the information on how chlamydia is transmitted in women, men and children, it became clear that the main method of infection is unprotected sexual contact and promiscuous intercourse. Household chlamydia is less common and only when a person does not follow basic rules of personal hygiene.

Infection of children with chlamydia is possible, but under certain conditions, which were described above. To eliminate the serious consequences that arise with chlamydia, you need to forget about unprotected sex with an unverified partner and be examined more often by a doctor.

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