Blood Test For Worms - How Is It Done Correctly?

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Blood Test For Worms - How Is It Done Correctly?
Blood Test For Worms - How Is It Done Correctly?

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What blood tests will help determine helminthic invasion in a short time?

Content

  • 1 Research principle
  • 2 Who needs to donate blood for worms?
  • 3 How is the analysis done?
  • 4 Determination of worms by blood

    • 4.1 Knott test
    • 4.2 Biochemical blood test
    • 4.3 Immunoassay
  • 5 Interpretation of ELISA tests

Helminths are parasites that live inside the human body. There they develop, feed, reproduce and die. In the course of their life, worms release toxic substances that negatively affect the state of the body.

Also, helminthic invasion in the absence of drug treatment for a long time can lead to serious consequences and even death. To determine the infection in time, it is necessary to take a blood test for worms. It will help you quickly and accurately determine the presence of worms in the body.

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Research principle

Most often, to determine the helminthic invasion, specialists send their patients for an immunological analysis, or ELISA. With its help, it is possible to comprehensively assess the protective abilities of the body. In the course of the analysis, it is possible to obtain a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the immune cells, due to which it is possible to identify helminthiasis.

In the presence of foreign microorganisms in the human blood, antibodies begin to combine with each other, thus forming a complex of antigen and antibodies. It is his doctor who is looking for in the blood during a detailed study. It should be borne in mind that this method is not absolutely accurate, in order to determine the helminthic invasion, it is recommended to undergo other examinations.

Thanks to a blood test for worms, it is possible to determine the following types of infections:

  1. Amoebiasis - infection with histolytic amoeba;
  2. Ascariasis - the presence of ascaris in the digestive tract;
  3. Giardiasis - the presence of lamblia in the large intestine;
  4. Opisthorchiasis - infection with hepatic trematode;
  5. Teniosis - the presence of flat worms in the body;
  6. Toxoplasmosis - Toxoplasma infection;
  7. Trichinosis - the presence of trichinella in the intestine;
  8. Fascioliasis - fluke invasion;
  9. Cysticercosis is an infection with cestodosis.

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To get more accurate results of such a study, it is recommended to donate blood for worms 2 times. The fact is that antibodies in this liquid begin to appear only 1-3 months after the onset of infection. The examination requires 5 ml of coronary blood from the cubital vein.

On average, city polyclinics prepare test results in a few days. In rare cases, for the diagnosis of certain types of worms, the duration of the preparation of the results can be 2 weeks.

Please note that the analysis is carried out separately to determine each type of parasite. There is no comprehensive study that could quickly and clearly determine the type of infection by blood. Statistics show that the accuracy of this method reaches 90% - the analysis not only shows the presence of an invasion, but also establishes the number of parasites in the body. It is almost impossible to do this with other research.

Who needs to donate blood for worms?

Thanks to a blood test for worms, any person will be able to find out in a few days whether unpleasant neighbors live in his body. However, the following categories of citizens must pass such a study without fail:

  • Workers who are in contact with animals for a long time - veterinarians, trainers;
  • Residents of endemic areas where the number of infected exceeds the norm;
  • Medical professionals and laboratory specialists;
  • Kindergarten workers;
  • Catering workers;
  • Children who enter kindergarten and primary school.

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How is the analysis done?

A blood test for worms is a rather rare occurrence. Doctors rarely send their patients for this examination. But everyone should pass it if they have at least one of the following indications:

  • The erythrocyte sedimentation rate is significantly exceeded;
  • White blood cell count is above normal;
  • There are signs of worms;
  • Stool analysis showed no infection.

To get the most correct and accurate results, you need to prepare well for this study. 3 days before donating blood, start following a special diet. You should completely abandon the use of fatty, spicy and fried foods, alcoholic beverages.

It is best to have vegetables, fruits, cereals and cereals, lean meats in your diet. Also, temporarily limit intense physical activity. It is not recommended to take medications 1 day in advance, however, their cancellation must be agreed with the doctor.

Failure to follow the preparatory measures can lead to a false test result. This is quite possible also in the presence of deviations in the work of the body. Keep in mind that such a study is not a one hundred percent method, it must be carried out in conjunction with other analyzes. This is the only way a specialist will be able to obtain accurate data on the state of your body. If you want to independently take an analysis for worms, contact a parasitologist in advance.

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Determination of worms by blood

Contrary to popular belief that worms can be determined only by examining feces, helminthiasis can be diagnosed solely by a blood test. The fact is that parasites, penetrating into the human body, begin to change its structure. In this regard, the chemical composition of all internal fluids, including blood, also changes.

It is possible to determine the primary signs of infection by the high level of eosinophils, hemoglobin and ESR. Modern research methods make it possible to quickly and accurately determine not only the presence of infection, but also to identify the number of parasites, as well as their type. Such results cannot be obtained by examining feces or smears.

Knott test

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Knott's method is a modern method for determining worms in the human body. It can be called almost error-free, as its accuracy reaches 95%. The essence of such a study is the filtration of a hemolyzed preparation obtained from blood fractions.

The resulting fragments are heated and tinted by the Romanovsky-Giemsa method. After some time, it is dried, clarified and studied under a microscope. The advantage of Knott's method is the fact that it can be used to determine the amount of the pathogen in the body.

A blood test by the Knott method is carried out in the event that it is necessary to determine the effect of helminths on the body.

The analysis shows the dynamics of changes in hemoglobin, eosinophils, erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The greater the deviation from the norm, the more serious the disease is. This condition requires immediate more extensive research.

Blood chemistry

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A routine biochemical blood test will help determine helminthic invasion. Of course, with its help it is impossible to identify the type and scale of the infection, but its results can be confirmed accurately. Usually, an infection is indicated by an increased level of bound and unbound bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase. The production of aminotransferase is also significantly increased.

If the hemoglobin level drops significantly, the specialist may suspect the development of complex enterobiasis. Despite the above studies, the most important blood test for worms is a serological technique - an enzyme immunoassay.

Linked immunosorbent assay

ELISA, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, is the most accurate method for determining helminthic invasion in the human body. Thanks to this study, it is possible to accurately identify the type of parasite, as well as its location. The main purpose of the analysis is to identify specific antibodies and agents in the blood that can be produced exclusively by parasites.

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ELISA also allows you to answer the following questions:

  1. The type of helminths, the place of their localization;
  2. The scale of the invasion, the number of individuals in the body;
  3. The ability of worms to reproduce.

The main advantage of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay is that it can be used to determine the invasion immediately after infection. It is not at all necessary that the body contains mature individuals that lay eggs.

Worms may not always reproduce, therefore, it is not possible to identify the larvae in the feces. This is the lack of analysis of feces or scraping from the anus.

For a blood test to show the most accurate results, you need to carefully prepare for it. First of all, a few days before taking the material, try to stop eating fatty and spicy foods, which greatly affect the chemical composition of the blood.

You need to take the analysis only on an empty stomach, the only assumption is a small amount of pure water. It is very important to consult with a doctor in advance about taking medications - if it is impossible to cancel them, then an exact list of the drugs used must be provided to the laboratory.

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On average, the analysis results are prepared within 2-4 days. If they are positive, then the person is immediately prescribed medications against certain groups of the pathogen. The ELISA analysis allows you to determine the type of invasion, due to which it is possible to prescribe a more effective and safer therapy.

In rare cases, if the results deviate significantly from the norm, the patient is sent for more extensive studies - ultrasound of internal organs and MRI. This is usually necessary for invasions of the heart, brain, or lungs. This condition requires immediate surgical intervention.

If the blood test for worms is negative, the doctor may send the patient for a second examination. It is usually done after 2-3 weeks. If the results are again negative, but there are still signs of invasion, the person is sent for further extended diagnostic examination.

Interpretation of ELISA tests

An enzyme immunoassay is a study through which it is possible to determine the exact type of infection with a particular pathogen.

The analysis is quite accurate, it is carried out in laboratory conditions. Today, almost all city polyclinics have reagents for it.

To correctly decipher the analysis results, you need to know the following:

  • All markers are negative - the body is clean at the time of blood donation, no parasites were found;
  • All markers are positive - many chronic diseases have worsened in the body;
  • Markers A and M are negative, and G is positive - this state indicates the presence of a formed immunity to parasites;
  • Markers A and G are negative, and M is positive - this state indicates the initial course of the acute phase of helminthiasis;
  • All markers, except for M, are positive - helminthiasis flows into the chronic stage.

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