Analysis For Roundworms - How To Properly Diagnose?

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Analysis For Roundworms - How To Properly Diagnose?
Analysis For Roundworms - How To Properly Diagnose?

Video: Analysis For Roundworms - How To Properly Diagnose?

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How is the analysis performed for the presence of ascaris in the body?

Content

  • 1 What is the cause of ascariasis
  • 2 Groups of diagnostic methods of ascariasis
  • 3 Life cycle of roundworm: how it affects the choice of research method
  • 4 What is an ELISA study

    4.1 When an ELISA test for ascariasis is performed

  • 5 How to get tested for ascariasis correctly

    • 5.1 Stool analysis: how to define the disease
    • 5.2 PCR feces for roundworms: how to donate
  • 6 How to decipher analyzes for ascariasis
  • 7 Prevention of secondary infection

Ascariasis is considered a helminthic invasion with problematic identification. Indeed, it is not so easy to diagnose an ailment, one type of research is often not enough. The main diagnostic tool will be a blood test for roundworms, thanks to which it is possible to fix helminthic disease in the early stages. Chronic ascariasis is easier to detect, but at the time of detection, parasites can already cause serious harm to human health.

What is the cause of ascariasis

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What is the cause of ascariasis

Disease means the infection of the human body with the eggs of such a worm as roundworm. This parasite belongs to the roundworm family. Its life cycle is one year from the moment it enters the body of a person or animal. There, in an ideal temperature and nutrient medium for itself, the ascaris grows and becomes a sexually mature individual. The maximum size of the worm is 40 cm. It takes less than a month for a helminth larva to turn from an almost invisible microorganism into an impressive worm.

The signs of ascariasis can be confused with any intestinal infection. But if at the same time a person is dramatically losing weight, he has a cough of an unclear nature, an allergic rash appears, one can suspect that this is a helminthic invasion. It's not worth waiting for the larva to become a large worm. The very first alarming symptoms should lead the patient to a doctor, so that an urgent diagnosis would precede quality treatment.

Groups of diagnostic methods of ascariasis

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Groups of diagnostic methods of ascariasis

The primary diagnosis is carried out by a doctor. Ideally, this should be an infectious disease doctor or epidemiologist. If there is no such specialist in your area, contact your local doctor. An examination and questioning of the patient is necessary, which will give the doctor an understanding of the possible cause of the health problems.

Diagnostic methods of helminthiasis:

  • General clinical. These include the analysis of feces. A blood test will be informative to the same extent, since the level of eosinophils in the biological fluid increases during helminthiasis. Indirectly, anemia can also talk about invasion. Biochemistry is also prescribed, it can reveal traces of the vital activity of worms in the urine.
  • Specific. This is PCR of sputum (carried out only at some stages of the disease) and feces.
  • Serological. In the laboratory, blood serum is examined for the content of antibodies that are produced as a response to helminthiasis.
  • Additional. At various stages in the life of parasites, they can be determined by X-ray diagnostics, CT, endoscopy and ultrasound.

How many tests are required to pass depends on the age of the patient, on the stage of the disease, on a number of signs of the disease and other features of the course of the pathology.

Ascaris life cycle: how it affects the choice of research method

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Ascaris life cycle: how it affects the choice of research method

Even if one analysis gave a negative transcript, it is impossible to say for sure that there is no illness. The stage of the disease is always taken into account. If this is the migration phase, when roundworm larvae enter the lungs, then come out with phlegm, end up in the mouth and again in the intestines, special studies are needed. At this time, an X-ray is needed (moreover, several procedures), ultrasound, computed tomography, endoscopy. What exactly will be appointed, the doctor decides. For example, an X-ray reveals infiltrates in the lungs - inflamed areas affected by helminth larvae.

The intestinal stage is the easiest to study. Stool analysis will be informative. But for clarification, the doctor will also determine a blood test. Ultrasound and X-ray are also possible at this stage of the disease - they will allow you to see where the localization of the parasite is now.

Therefore, the patient may be prepared for the fact that a blood test for ascariasis is not the only procedure that he has to undergo.

What is an ELISA study

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What is an ELISA study

This abbreviation stands for enzyme immunoassay. It is generally accepted that this technique is the most effective in diagnosing many diseases, including helminth lesions.

Roundworms always produce antigens; human immunity is simply unable not to react to them. It reproduces specific antibodies. They are needed to eliminate the toxic effects of roundworms on organs and systems. The concentration, as well as the quality of antibodies, is the reason not only for fixing ascariasis, but also for the degree of the disease.

Different types of antibodies correspond to different periods of invasion: these are antibodies to roundworm antigens - A, M, G, as well as general ones - D, E. By the presence of a certain immunoglobulin, you can find out the time of infection. For example, a positive IgG marker - speaks of 3-6 weeks of ascariasis, and IgM - speaks of invasion almost on the 5th day.

When is the analysis for ascariasis ELISA

Blood for roundworms must be donated when preliminary, simpler studies are completed. If the symptoms are bright, and the first tests did not give information, an ELISA is prescribed.

When else is it recommended to take this test:

  • With mixed infections;
  • When observing the dynamics of treatment;
  • With critical indicators relative to the norms of other blood tests for roundworms.

Sometimes, very rarely, ELISA is used if the acceptable epidemiological threshold is high. If the situation among the population in terms of the incidence of ascariasis is alarming, the examination should be massive and accurate.

How to get tested for ascariasis correctly

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How to get tested for ascariasis correctly

In adults, blood is usually taken from a vein for examination, and in children, only capillary blood is taken. The rules for analyzing roundworms (how to take, how to prepare) are quite traditional. The study is carried out on an empty stomach, so it is better to do it in the morning. Doctors advise: do not eat anything half a day before the test. Two days before the study, you should also not use any medication.

Adults are advised not to smoke or drink alcohol a day before the analysis. If this prescription is violated, the research results may not be entirely correct, the examination must be repeated.

What are the advantages of ELISA analysis:

  1. High reliability of this method - not less than 90%;
  2. Possibility of early diagnosis;
  3. Informativeness regarding the dynamics of the disease;
  4. The speed of receiving a response.

The complexity of the research technique means that the analysis is costly. This is a paid technique, because not all patients agree to undergo ELISA. But there is no such informative alternative, therefore the expenses are justified.

Stool analysis: how to determine the disease

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Stool analysis: how to determine the disease

The classic method for detecting ascariasis is the study of feces. It is used with both adult patients and small ones. Simple coprogram, as well as coprovoscopy, will be accurate if there are roundworm eggs in the intestines of the infected. That is, the informational content will give the stage of chronic infection.

But if in the patient's body there are old, adult same-sex worms or immature individuals, the analysis of feces will not show the disease. Then carry out PCR of biological secretions.

I must say that the analysis is not taken once - it is carried out in a row from three to six times. The interval for the delivery of the biomaterial is 1-2 days. If we talk about feces PCR, then two procedures with an interval of 14-21 days are enough.

PCR feces for roundworms: how to take

It is recommended to take a sample of biological material on the same day as the bowel movement took place. There are certain rules for passing the analysis that guarantee correct, adequate results.

Features of donating feces for PCR analysis:

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  • A woman during the period of delivery should not have menstruation;
  • Mixing feces and urine must be excluded;
  • The release of biological material should be natural - the use of cleansing enemas is unacceptable;
  • Taking medications, rectal suppositories is also unacceptable before analysis;
  • Before the act of defecation, a genital toilet is required;
  • Two to three days before the analysis, you should not eat foods that cause increased gas formation.

An important point: this test cannot be taken by people with hemorrhoid bleeding, as well as bleeding gums. This is explained by the possible distortion of the results.

How to decipher tests for ascariasis

And although the ELISA and PCR methods are accurate, you need to run the analysis at least twice. Conclusions, interpretation of results are possible in three versions.

Test results:

  1. Positive. This means that the helminthic invasion is confirmed. But it should be understood that antibodies for some time are still produced by the immune system of a patient who has undergone an invasion and underwent a course of treatment.
  2. Negative. No worms were found. But at the initial stage of helminthiasis, the diagnosis is often wrong.
  3. Doubtful (questionable). So they say if the indicators are close to normal. It is imperative to check the condition again, take the analysis again, and if the result is the same, it is interpreted as negative.

Almost always on the sheet with the results there is a deciphering of specialists: the patient himself should not guess how things are, whether he is sick. This is also necessary for the fact that all laboratories operate on different equipment; the composition and reagents required for research may also be different. Therefore, they write a decryption on a form with analyzes, exceptions are rare. If you do not understand something, ask your doctor again - he will explain each item on the research sheet.

Prevention of secondary infection

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Prevention of secondary infection People who have already survived helminthiasis usually become more careful, more attentive, more careful about their health. As a rule, in the future they pass preventive tests - every year they check for helminthic invasion. Indeed, the diagnosis is not at all the most common; the treatment, although short-lived, is not easy to survive psychologically. The delicacy of the problem also complicates therapy: it is difficult for the patient to overcome his embarrassment, etc.

But, unfortunately, having once had ascariasis, a person cannot protect himself from the disease. Immunity to helminthic invasion is not developed. That is, at any moment, a person can again discover an ill-fated illness. To minimize all risks, you need, first, to know for sure that the treatment was successful. You can't just take pills and forget about the problem. Moreover, after the main course of treatment, restorative therapy always follows, all this time the patient follows a diet, which should be an example of nutrition for a person for the next 1-2 months.

If all the doctor's prescriptions are followed, the prognosis for successful healing and recovery is high. Personal hygiene rules will remain the same - wash your hands after the street, toilet, before eating. Make sure that flies and mosquitoes do not enter your home (they are carriers of helminth eggs), do not allow anyone to take your personal belongings.

You need to be especially careful while working on the site: roundworm eggs are in the soil, they can be on the harvest, they can get on the clothes in which you work. Therefore, work items should not be in the house, after summer cottage work, you need to wash your hands well with soap, and it is better to take a shower. Work items can be left for ventilation outside: on the sunny side of the site. Ascaris eggs cannot withstand ultraviolet rays - the worms die. Therefore, sandboxes are recommended to be placed in sunny areas, since in this place such devices will be safe for children.

Ascariasis is a disease that can be successfully treated. But effective therapy is possible only after adequate, accurate diagnosis. Therefore, hand over everything that the doctor prescribes for you, and be sure of the correct treatment tactics.

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