Ascaris In Children - Symptoms And Treatment Methods

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Ascaris In Children - Symptoms And Treatment Methods
Ascaris In Children - Symptoms And Treatment Methods

Video: Ascaris In Children - Symptoms And Treatment Methods

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Video: Worm Infection in Babies - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment 2023, February
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Infection of a child with ascaris

Content

  • 1 Characteristics of roundworm
  • 2 How does ascariasis occur in children
  • 3 What is the harm of ascaris for the child's body
  • 4 How disease expresses itself
  • 5 Symptoms of the late stage of ascariasis
  • 6 How to define a disease
  • 7 Therapeutic tactics for ascariasis in children

    • 7.1 How to prepare your child for treatment
    • 7.2 Features of the treatment of children from ascariasis
    • 7.3 Is an allergic reaction to drugs possible?
    • 7.4 Why take laxatives and enemas
    • 7.5 Antiglist oxygen therapy
  • 8 Prevention of ascariasis

Worms are a word that in most children and adults causes at least a feeling of dislike, and, quite possibly, fear. This is a delicate problem and this characteristic of pathology often interferes with treatment. People are simply afraid to go to the doctor with suspicion of helminthiasis, and therefore they start the disease. But parasites are really dangerous, sometimes their presence in the body leads to irreversible consequences. Children are more susceptible to helminthic invasion. And it can be roundworm, one of the most frightening externally helminths.

Ascaris characteristic

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Ascaris characteristic

This is the name for the roundworms that develop in the human intestine. As soon as the child has swallowed something, on which there were roundworm eggs, they penetrate into the small intestine, and there they already become larvae. Their path follows through the intestinal wall, so they enter the bloodstream, then into the lungs. And then, with sputum, the worms are again introduced into the intestines and stomach. And so, in the gastrointestinal tract system, they are already becoming sexually mature helminths, the females of which are able to lay eggs.

The entire migration cycle of these worms is 10 days. From the hour that the eggs of the worm found themselves in the human body, 6 weeks have elapsed - and it already becomes a sexually mature individual. Females grow up to 40 cm in length, males - up to 25 cm. Unfortunately, roundworms are too tenacious parasites, since the body is covered with a special protective shell, gastric juice is powerless against it.

Roundworms live for one year, and their eggs can remain alive for up to 12 years, if the conditions of existence are favorable. But in this case we are not talking about the body, person or animal, but about the earth, which is very moist and warm.

How does ascariasis occur in children

In the human body, the eggs and larvae of this worm end up together with impure food and water. Flies and mosquitoes can carry eggs and other insects too. If a new invasion has not happened, then after a year the ascariasis can disappear on its own, since the worm itself dies.

A child becomes infected if:

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  • Eats with unwashed hands, pulls a vegetable or berry into his hands immediately from the garden;
  • A pet lives at home that is not properly cared for;
  • Unsanitary conditions in the child's place;
  • After playing in an unkempt sandbox, the child does not immediately wash his hands, but rubs his face, mouth, etc.

Worm eggs settle on any objects along with dust, because babies who literally pull everything into their mouths are more susceptible to infection

What is the harm of ascaris for the child's body

Despite the fact that after a year the parasite dies on its own, during its life it can seriously worsen human health. And these are not just ailments or weakness, these are very significant problems that pose a danger to the child's body.

Why roundworms are dangerous:

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  • They deform the intestinal mucosa (the intestinal wall is irritated and damaged, intestinal perforation is possible);
  • They feed on those vitamin elements that the child receives with food (the cells of the child's body do not receive them enough, which causes vitamin deficiency);
  • Affect the child's immunity (he becomes more susceptible to viruses and diseases, and they are more severe);
  • The risk of bronchitis is great (worms can become a provocateur of a dangerous disease of the respiratory system);
  • Ascaris can get into the cecum, and this will cause an acute attack of appendicitis;
  • If the worms enter the biliary tract, then the patient will develop jaundice and toxic hepatitis;
  • Once in the lungs, helminths can become a provocateur of pneumonia in a child;
  • Ascaris in the eyes is also dangerous, the patient may develop conjunctivitis, inflammation of the lacrimal ducts, vision impairment;
  • If the worm is in the auditory canal, hearing impairment is possible;
  • The risk of brain and central nervous system damage.

About three months after the invasion, the child will show signs of anemia. But you cannot wait so long as soon as there are suspicions of helminthic infection, the child needs to be treated urgently, without waiting for complications. It is possible to diagnose ascariasis in a child by passing a blood test for the presence of helminths. A preventive analysis can be carried out every year, and then you will not miss a dangerous moment.

How disease expresses itself

Signs of ascariasis in children are associated with two phases of the disease. The first phase is called migration. At this time, the larvae move through the blood. The second phase is called late, it means the presence of an adult helminth in the intestines.

At the first stage, when the larvae "walk" through the blood vessels of the body, they are able to penetrate into various organs, provoke irritation of the latter. Quite often, this provokes an allergic cough and rash, the cause of which, at first glance, is difficult to determine. But if at the time of infection of the roundworm eggs a little penetrated, then the symptoms may be absent.

With a serious infection, it is at the first stage that intoxication of the body occurs:

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  • The temperature rises to 38 degrees;
  • The lymph nodes are enlarged;
  • Headache occurs;
  • The spleen and liver grow in volume;
  • Feet and hands are affected by a rash;
  • A cough appears with phlegm in the form of pus;
  • The bronchi are affected.

These symptoms are inherent in the early stage of the disease. Many parents perceive them as signs of acute respiratory viral infections, prescribe self-treatment, which does not bring relief to the child. Therefore, any amateur activity is prohibited: as soon as the child becomes ill, show him to the doctor.

Helminthic invasion is not such a rarity in childhood, because doctors, among other diseases, suspect this one too, they must check their suspicions, after which there is no doubt that the treatment was prescribed adequately.

Symptoms of the late stage of ascariasis

The late stage is characterized by signs of intestinal diseases. For example, dyspepsia and dysentery.

The child may complain about:

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  • Nausea and severe vomiting, increased salivation;
  • Fatigue;
  • Stomatitis;
  • Bloating of the intestines;
  • Reluctance to eat, abdominal cramps.

During this period, the patient can lose a lot of weight, he develops photophobia and pupils enlarge. The anus turns red, itches, which brings great discomfort to the child.

Even the occurrence of seizures and epileptic seizures is not excluded. Disease can be accompanied by insomnia: the child is tormented by nightmares, from which the sleep pattern is disturbed.

How to identify a disease

First, you need to undergo a general blood test. It will be clear from it whether there is a focus of inflammation in the body at a given time. If necessary, your doctor may order an x-ray of your lungs. At the migratory stage, infiltrates can be found, which are formed at the moment the roundworm larvae pass through the lungs. X-rays have to be done several times with an interval of several days. This helps to identify at what stage of development the parasites are (as indicated by the nature of the zones of inflammation).

The late stage of the disease also requires an X-ray examination, only then it becomes clear whether there are adult worms in the lungs.

You may also need the following research methods:

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  • Stool analysis (only at a later stage);
  • Analysis of sputum from the lungs;
  • Contrast x-ray of the intestine;
  • Endoscopy of the esophagus;
  • ELISA - a blood test for the presence of antibodies to parasites.

Your pediatrician will tell you more specifically what needs to be passed to the child, what tests to undergo in order to establish as accurately as possible what he is sick with.

Therapeutic tactics for ascariasis in children

Complex treatment - of course, one magic pill is indispensable. It is necessary not only to destroy parasites and remove them from the body, it is also necessary to restore the normal functioning of the intestines and eliminate the consequences of ascariasis.

To kill worms, the patient is prescribed either a single or multiple intake of special drugs, and a laxative is also prescribed to help cleanse the intestines.

How to prepare your child for treatment

A small patient is usually offered activated charcoal or other medicinal sorbents that remove intoxication products from the body.

To eliminate intestinal irritation, mild anti-inflammatory drugs are prescribed. If the patient is diagnosed with pneumonia or bronchitis, antibiotic therapy is also prescribed. An allergic reaction is removed with antihistamines. Dysbacteriosis is treated with drugs with beneficial bacteria. Perhaps the appointment of funds to strengthen the immune forces, vitamin complexes.

So, at an early stage of ascariasis, the therapeutic regimen includes:

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  • Anthelmintic drugs;
  • Bronchodilators;
  • Antihistamines;
  • Probiotics.

At the intestinal stage of the development of the disease, iron supplements, multivitamin complexes, and enzyme compounds can also be prescribed. Mintezol works well against larvae, Albendazole is often prescribed for infants, Piperazine is recommended for children over two years old. But all medicines come with their own strict dosage, and the choice of one or another anthelmintic agent is solely determined by the decision of the doctor.

How to treat roundworms in a child, the doctor decides. Folk remedies in the treatment of children are excluded: they may not only turn out to be useless, but even bring tangible harm to the little patient.

Features of the treatment of children from ascariasis

Before treatment and during therapy, it is recommended to remove salty, spicy, sour, sweet, fatty foods from the patient's diet. Food becomes strictly dietary. Side effects are not excluded - vomiting, nausea, headaches, weakness. They will disappear as soon as therapy is over.

The entire treatment process takes place under medical supervision: the doctor makes sure that there are no complications. For preventive purposes, all family members should undergo therapy. A month after the start of treatment, the child takes the first analysis of feces for eggs of worms. After this analysis, conclusions can be drawn about how successful the treatment is.

If the doctor prescribes too weak drugs, the parasite will not come out naturally, but will rise to the top. Helminths can get out through the nose and through the mouth, so you need to carefully monitor the condition of the child. If treated incorrectly, worms block the airways, which is fraught with suffocation.

If the therapy is correct, the medication is taken according to all the rules, roundworms will come out during the bowel movement. If the disease is detected in a timely manner, and the child quickly received therapy, the prognosis is the most favorable.

Is an allergic reaction to drugs possible?

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Is an allergic reaction to drugs possible?

Of course, such a course of events cannot be ruled out. If the child previously had an allergic reaction to a medicine that a specialist prescribes, then it cannot be used. It is imperative to warn the doctor about a possible allergy so that he selects a treatment that is safe for a particular patient. With powerful side effects, when the drug caused a serious reaction from the body - severe vomiting and nausea, intestinal pain, an ambulance should be called urgently. It also happens that dead roundworms accumulate in tangles and block the intestinal lumen, causing acute obstruction.

Why take laxatives and enemas

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Why take laxatives and enemas

Laxative medicines and cleansing enemas help to quickly remove the worms from the body. It is safe and effective. Of course, it happens that children are afraid of the very procedure associated with the installation of an enema. But the child can always be distracted, turning medical actions into a playful moment. The main thing is to monitor how all these manipulations worked.

But these are only auxiliary means - the dead parasites need to get out of the body, and a laxative, as well as an enema, contribute to this.

The main treatment is to take anthelmintic drugs. Although there is an alternative to such therapy, and it is associated with oxygen.

Antiglist oxygen therapy

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Antiglist oxygen therapy

Some parasitologists use oxygen in their practice as an active aid in removing worms from the body. Parasites simply cannot carry large amounts of oxygen. But to say that this method alone will be able to kill helminths cannot be said with complete certainty. Therefore, oxygen therapy is perceived as an additional treatment.

Oxygen is transferred to the patient's stomach through a catheter. The action lasts about half an hour, during which time oxygen slowly, in the right dosage, enters the stomach. After the end of the procedure, the child needs to lie down for about an hour.

But with the existing pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, this method is prohibited. Also, oxygen therapy in some cases causes constipation, but they can be dealt with with laxatives. However, only a doctor can prescribe such a procedure if he sees that this technique can be useful individually for this patient.

Prevention of ascariasis

Distinguish between primary and secondary prevention. The primary one is, first of all, in teaching the child the norms of personal hygiene. After using the toilet, you should wash your hands with soap and water, and you should always wash your hands before eating and after outside. The kid should know that unwashed vegetables and fruits cannot be eaten, that berries cannot be eaten immediately from the garden. He must be clean and outside. You should be especially careful when playing in the sandbox.

All pets must be regularly examined for the presence of worms, and treated if a danger is identified.

Secondary prevention consists of:

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  • In the timely detection of disease and cure;
  • In the special treatment of household items, in the disinfection of public places;
  • In the treatment of tap water and disposal of sewage.

If the child is sick, or you suspect the presence of a pathology, go to the pediatrician. He will write out a referral for the necessary tests. Further treatment should be carried out by an infectious disease doctor. If complications arise, you may need to consult an allergist, gastroenterologist, neurologist, etc.

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