Table of contents:
- 9 simple rules for the prevention of worms to avoid infection
- How can you get infected with worms
- At-risk groups
- Preparations for specific prophylaxis
- Non-specific measures for the prevention of helminthic diseases
- Prevention of worms with folk remedies
- Prevention of worms in adults and children: arguments for and against
Video: Prevention Of Worms In Adults From A To Z. All Basic Measures
9 simple rules for the prevention of worms to avoid infection
- 1 How can you get infected with worms
- 2 Risk groups
3 Preparations for specific prophylaxis
- 3.1 Albendazole (Vormil, Nemozole)
- 3.2 Mebendazole (Vermox)
- 3.3 Pirantel
- 3.4 Levamisole (Decaris)
- 3.5 Praziquantel (Biltricide)
- 4 Non-specific measures for the prevention of helminthic diseases
- 5 Prevention of worms with folk remedies
- 6 Prevention of worms in adults and children: the pros and cons
Worms (helminths) are parasitic worms that live in humans and some animal species. Once in the internal organs, they are able to develop freely, provoking the progression of parasitic diseases. Helminths extract nutrients from the intestines, stomach, lungs, liver, muscles and joints, destroying tissues and causing severe ailments, even death.
Prevention of worms is an important measure to avoid infection and prevent severe complications caused by parasites
How can you get infected with worms
Ways of helminths entering the human body depend on the type of parasitic worms.
There are 4 main mechanisms of infection:
- If eggs or larvae are swallowed, which are passed out with the feces of the host.
- Transdermal. The larvae of parasites get from soil and water onto the skin or mucous membranes of a person.
- Transmissible. It consists in infection by insect bites - mosquitoes, mosquitoes, fleas.
Transplacental. The transmission of worms from mother to child - this is how infection occurs with those types of worms that are able to migrate through the bloodstream.
Most often, infection occurs without an intermediate host - eggs and larvae of helminths are transmitted from person to person indirectly through the environment and objects. Pathogens enter the soil or water, and then, together with unwashed vegetables and untreated water, enter the body of the new host.
Mature eggs can remain on the hands or surrounding objects after touching, and from there they can be released into food and drinks. With saliva, the worms parasitizing in the lungs of a person are transmitted - when coughing, through kisses or a common dish, the eggs acquire a new host.
Cattle and some fish species are intermediate hosts for worms that parasitize muscle tissue. Therefore, human infection can occur through the consumption of insufficiently processed meat and fish.
Knowledge of the transmission routes of parasites allows timely prevention of helminthiases in situations where the expected risk of infection was maximum.
There are several groups of people who are more at risk of infection with helminths than others. First of all, they must comply with the measures of prevention of helminths - specific and non-specific - so as not to harm their own health and not endanger the health of others.
Mandatory prevention is needed:
- To persons who regularly come into contact with the soil - summer residents, agricultural workers.
- For pet owners - cats, dogs, small and large rodents. Even those animals that are not walked outside can pick up the larvae from a person's shoes and become an intermediate host of the parasite. You should be especially careful when cleaning the animal's tray, since it is with the feces that eggs are released most often.
- Travelers who often visit other countries, in particular, the states of Asia, Africa, South America. They are at risk of infection with rare helminths, which are difficult to detect in our country.
- Lovers of beaches and fishing. Frequent stay near fresh water bodies at times increases the risk of catching dangerous pathogens.
Children attending preschool, courses and classes. With a large congestion of small children, infection with worms often occurs, since they are more susceptible to invasions than others. Kids play in sandpits, put dirty toys, unwashed vegetables and fruits into their mouths, do not like to wash their hands after using the toilet and before eating, but love to play with animals. These are undeniable risk factors for infection with worms.
A person who is at risk should not only observe the rules of personal hygiene with particular care, but also think about taking special medications for the prevention of helminths.
Preparations for specific prophylaxis
Antihelminthic drugs are aimed at destroying young worms and maintaining general human health. Medicines against worms are not completely safe, so self-administration of drugs without consulting a doctor is not recommended.
Only a narrow-profile specialist, a parasitologist, can build preventive tactics, correctly calculate the dose and regimen for taking the drug. Before starting treatment, it may be necessary to take tests, which will allow you to choose the most effective preventive and therapeutic agents.
Albendazole (Vormil, Nemozole)
It belongs to antiparasitic drugs of a wide spectrum of action, it is effective in mono- and polyinvasions. The active substances of the drug prevent the utilization of glucose in the intestinal tract of worms, which leads to their death.
The most effective in relation to round, tapeworms, flukes, bovine, pork tapeworm, lamblia, it significantly reduces the size of cysts or completely destroys them.
The drug is available in tablet form, and at the stage of prevention of helminthiasis does not require a special diet or laxatives. The daily dosage of Albendazole is calculated based on the body weight of the child and adult.
A synthetic drug with a broad spectrum of anthelmintic action. Blocks the formation of adenosine triphosphoric acid - the main source of energy for the causative agent of invasions, which causes irreversible changes in the body of the helminth and its death.
The drug is available in the form of tablets, suspension and syrup. Effectively fights against helminthiasis caused by pinworms, whipworm, roundworms, intestinal eels, hookworm, bovine tapeworm, Trichinella and echinococcus.
Dovka and duration of taking the drug are calculated individually depending on the age of the patient and risk factors.
This is the most common pharmacological agent for the treatment and prevention of worms in adults and children. Due to its special composition, the drug is safe even for small patients, it helps to effectively fight, first of all, with roundworms.
The active substances of Pirantel have a paralytic effect on the muscles of helminths, completely immobilizing and destroying them in a short time.
A feature of the drug is its effectiveness only against adult worms. Therefore, treatment and prophylactic measures are carried out in several stages, repeating courses at regular intervals.
It is able to fight several types of parasites at once. Has a paralytic effect on roundworm, hookworm, nematodes, parasitizing in the respiratory and digestive organs of humans. It acts as an effective immunomodulator - it activates the production of multidirectional immune cells, increasing the body's resistance to various types of infectious and parasitic lesions.
Levamisole is available in the form of tablets, treatment and prevention with the drug is carried out under the strict supervision of a physician. It is not recommended for children under the age of three, people with hematopoietic disorders, kidney and liver diseases.
An antihelminthic drug that is used in the fight against flatworms: Chinese and feline fluke, Mansoni schistosoma, dwarf tapeworm, broad tapeworm, bovine and pork tapeworm.
Once in the body of worms, Praziquantel causes muscle spasms followed by paralysis, and in high concentration destroys the outer cover of flatworms, which leads to their death.
The release form of the drug is tablets. They are used for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes in adults and children after 4 years.
The drug can affect reaction speed and concentration. Therefore, with caution, it is assigned to workers associated with driving vehicles or managing complex mechanisms.
Non-specific measures for the prevention of helminthic diseases
Antihelminthics are an extreme measure of invasion prevention, which is not recommended in many cases.
The best way to protect yourself from parasites is to be hygienic and attentive to your own health. This will allow not only to protect yourself from serious complications, but also to avoid additional financial costs.
How not to get infected with worms - 9 simple rules:
Observe the rules of hygiene. Timely change underwear and bedding, regularly take a shower and bath. Wash hands after using the toilet, before eating, after visiting public places and city transport. The best way to wash your hands is a germicidal soap.
- Visit the beach with shoes on. In the soil near water bodies, there is a huge number of worm larvae that can penetrate the human body through small wounds and cracks in the skin. After the beach, you should wash your feet with soap and water to reduce the risk of further migration of the parasite eggs.
- Carry out a thorough processing of vegetables, fruits, herbs, fry and boil meat and fish until fully cooked in order to completely destroy the eggs and larvae of parasites. During gutting, fish should be carefully examined for eggs and worms, and a separate board should be used to cut raw fish and meat. Fry meat and fish products on both sides. If possible, refuse to use unsalted fish, sliced fish, lightly salted caviar and sushi.
- To clean the apartment regularly - to carry out wet cleaning, paying special attention to the favorite places of stay of pets. Take out the trays with feces as often as possible, and it is better to do this with gloves to prevent eggs from getting on the skin.
- Regular nail polishing will help reduce the risk of infection - pinworm larvae especially often accumulate under the nail plates.
- Do not drink water from questionable sources. The liquid intended for drinking must be boiled or purified - in it, the risk of preserving the larvae is reduced to zero.
- Conduct antihelminthic therapy for pets that may be potential carriers of parasite eggs.
- Destroy insects that appear in the home. Mosquitoes, cockroaches, flies, ants and woodlice are often carriers of larvae and pose a health hazard.
Strengthen immunity - to stimulate the body to fight worms and diseases that they cause.
The child's life should be properly organized, because children from 3 to 8 years old are especially susceptible to helminthic infestations. It is forbidden to allow the child to play in the toilet and corridor, use outdoor shoes for games. All toys should be periodically treated with water and baking soda or laundry soap.
During street walks, you need to make sure that the baby does not take dirty fingers, sand and toys in his mouth, to prevent the child from contacting street animals. It is also not recommended to consume food and drinks on the street - it is better to eat and drink at home.
If a helminthic invasion has been detected in one of the family members, measures should be taken that will not allow the rest of the household to become infected. Measures for the prevention of helminthiasis will consist in frequent linen change, wearing tight swimming trunks, daily washing, washing and ironing at high temperatures.
The effectiveness of prevention of worms largely depends on the personal conscience of each person. Persons whose professional activities are associated with a high probability of infection and spread of invasions should be especially attentive to their health.
Prevention of worms with folk remedies
For preventive purposes, it is allowed to use products of plant origin and medicinal herbs with anthelmintic action. Measures can be taken if there is a suspicion of infection with helminths, if symptoms of invasion are observed, or if there is a desire to support the body with nonspecific natural preventive agents.
It is necessary to introduce into the diet foods that parasites “don't like”:
- Prepare juice from fresh carrots and drink a glass of fresh juice daily for a week;
- Pumpkin seeds, onions and garlic are proven methods of preventing parasitic worms;
- Pepper, turmeric, cloves - these spices should be present in most first and second courses;
- Use flaxseed oil for dressing vegetable salads;
- Every morning on an empty stomach, drink 200 ml of tomato juice - the duration of the course is 7 days;
- Eat 2-3 ripe pomegranates daily - the course is carried out from 2 to 4 days;
Take half a teaspoon of honey 9 times a day. For children, honey water is suitable for these purposes - dissolve a teaspoon of honey in a glass of purified water and drink it half an hour before meals.
It should be noted that persons with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract in an acute form need to be careful with spicy dishes and seasonings. Prevention of helminthiasis should be carried out during periods of remission.
Popular anthelmintic folk recipes:
- Elecampane. Elecampane rhizomes contain bitterness that parasites cannot stand. To prepare a healing infusion, you need to take 100 g of chopped elecampane root and pour a glass of boiling water in a glass refractory dish. Cover the vessel with a lid, wrap with a towel and leave until morning. Consume 35 ml each morning before meals.
- Walnut. Walnut fruits contain juglone, an antiparasitic component. It prevents the reproduction of worms and inhibits their vital activity. Nuts can be used for the prevention of helminthiasis - for three days, eat 5-6 nut kernels in three doses. Bitter fruit tincture is also effective: mix 4 tablespoons of chopped kernels with 1/2 l of alcohol and leave for 2 weeks. Take 1-2 tablespoons three times a day.
Sagebrush. The plant has anthelmintic and immunostimulating properties. It is most convenient to use ready-made wormwood tincture, which can be purchased at the pharmacy. Dilute 15 drops of the drug in a small volume of water and take three times a day 10-15 minutes before meals.
Prevention of helminthic invasions with folk remedies should be carried out twice a year - in spring and autumn. In the off-season, the body is most susceptible to negative influences from the outside and hardly resists parasites.
The use of funds prepared according to folk recipes will allow you to gently carry out prevention and support the immune forces.
Prevention of worms in adults and children: arguments for and against
If the advisability of using non-specific measures for the prevention of helminths is not in doubt, then many are skeptical about the use of drugs for this purpose.
An argument against the use of pharmaceuticals is the insecurity of the drugs. Each medicine has contraindications for use, can cause a number of side effects and individual intolerance to the components.
Most drugs are prohibited for use in childhood, pregnancy and lactation. Therefore, the decision to use specific prophylaxis should be made carefully, taking into account contraindications, age and lifestyle of the patient.
But when ordinary measures to prevent invasions are ineffective or there is a risk of large-scale infection of the population with helminths, you cannot do without specific drugs. They serve as a reliable barrier between health and a dangerous parasite, serving as a proven preventive and therapeutic agent.
The most pronounced effect is provided by the complex prevention of helminthiasis in humans. It is necessary to periodically undergo specific prophylaxis with the whole family, strictly observe the rules of hygiene and strengthen the immune system with the help of folk recipes and proper nutrition. This will help protect your health and minimize the likelihood of infection with helminths.