Echinococcus Cyst - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

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Echinococcus Cyst - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment
Echinococcus Cyst - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

Video: Echinococcus Cyst - Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

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Video: Hydatid cyst of Echinococcus granulosus(Dog tapeworm) : Discussed in details everything you need 2023, February
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What is the danger of an echinococcus cyst and its signs

Content

  • 1 Description
  • 2 Etiology and epidemiology
  • 3 Reasons
  • 4 Stages of development of pathology
  • 5 Signs and symptoms

    • 5.1 Echinococcosis of the liver
    • 5.2 Echinococcosis of the gallbladder
    • 5.3 Echinococcosis of the lungs
    • 5.4 Echinococcal cyst of the brain
    • 5.5 Echinococcal cyst of the spinal cord
    • 5.6 Echinococcosis of the heart
    • 5.7 Echinococcosis of the spleen
    • 5.8 Echinococcosis of the kidneys
    • 5.9 Echinococcosis of bones
  • 6 Diagnosis
  • 7 Treatment of the disease
  • 8 Forecast and prevention

    8.1 Personal prevention of pathology

In modern times, as a result of the development of tourism, environmental pollution, the use of a large amount of chemicals and antibiotics, parasitic invasions are increasingly developing in the human body, which provoke the formation of such a pathology as an echinococcus cyst. This disease is called echinococcosis, it affects the internal organs, forming invasive cysts in them. The pathology of the tapeworm of echinococcus provokes the pathology, its eggs are brought into the body along with water, food or in contact with animals.

Description

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Echinococcosis is a disease of a chronic parasitic nature, provoked by the habitation of echinococcus larvae in the body. This ailment affects various internal organs, echinococcal cysts develop in them. Basically, the liver and lungs are affected, sometimes bones, brain, spleen, etc. are affected. Helminth eggs, once in the body, are carried by the bloodstream, affecting various organs. One or many cysts can form in them, it all depends on the number of introduced larvae.

Cyst is a bag in which a yellowish liquid is located, which serves as a protective shell for the larvae of the parasite. Cysts can range in size from one centimeters to gigantic in size, which can contain several liters of fluid. Symptoms and severity of the disease depend on the size and location of the echinococcus larvae. Usually, the disease does not show any signs for a long time; cysts are detected during medical examinations.

Etiology and epidemiology

In the modern world, in most cases, the disease is observed in Africa and America, Southern Europe and Central Asia. Here, about 10% of people have pathology. Echinococcosis is most often diagnosed in middle-aged people, sometimes in childhood.

The reasons

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Echinococcus life cycle

An adult echinococcus lives only in the body of animals, and its larva, an echinococcal cyst, appears in humans. The ways of its infection are different, but it usually occurs through contact with dogs, on the coat of which the eggs of the parasite are contained. Healthy animals can also infect humans with helminth eggs, as they can act as carriers. The eggs of the parasite can live at temperatures from -30 to +38 degrees Celsius on the soil surface, when exposed to the sun, they die during the day. In some cases, a person becomes infected by eating unwashed foods that contain parasites.

The circulation of the parasite occurs according to the principle: the culprit of infection is the external environment infected with eggs - an intermediate host, including a person - the final host.

Stages of development of pathology

From the moment the helminth and its eggs enter the body, the process of the development of the disease starts. The juice produced by the stomach helps them to leave their membrane and penetrate into the gastrointestinal mucosa. With the bloodstream, they are carried to all organs, settle in tissues and transform into larvae. After fourteen days, the larva develops into an echinococcal bladder. After five months, this bubble grows to five millimeters, then it slowly enlarges. After twenty-five years, its size may become so large that it will contain about ten liters of liquid. This liquid has a yellowish tint and a neutral reaction; it contains sodium chloride, succinic acid, tyrosine, and more. As the cyst grows, its pressure is exerted on the internal organs, and the waste products of the larva provoke inflammation of their tissues of a chronic nature.

In medicine, it is customary to distinguish several stages of the development of the disease:

  1. Latent (initial) stage that runs from the time of infection until the first symptoms appear. This stage can last for years, while the person feels good.
  2. The second stage is caused by the appearance of the first symptoms as a result of the pressure of the cyst on the organs. During this period, subjective disorders are observed.
  3. The third stage, when the symptoms are pronounced.
  4. The fourth stage is characterized by the appearance of complications in the form of ruptures, suppurations, accompanied by intoxication and pain.

Signs and symptoms

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Echinococcus cyst symptoms

The first stage of the disease does not show any signs. At the second stage, a person feels pain in the place where the cyst is located, weakness, itching, urticaria. In the last stages, the cyst often ruptures, provoking the ingress of cystic fluid into the abdominal cavity, and pleurisy or peritonitis develops. If cyst suppuration is observed, fever, acute intoxication of the body, various allergies that can cause anaphylactic shock appear. Over time, pathological changes in the immune system occur.

Compression of internal organs by a cyst often provokes the appearance of ascites, pathological dislocations and fractures, obstructive jaundice. Usually, an echinococcal bladder is detected by probing or during an ultrasound scan, X-ray and other.

The duration of the disease stages is difficult to establish due to the slow growth of the cyst. The rate of increase in symptoms depends on the location of the larva.

Echinococcosis of the liver

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This pathology is the most common and accounts for about 70% of all cases of echinococcosis. The eggs of the parasite in the bloodstream enter the liver, where they are placed in the capillaries. The bubbles increase slowly, over time they enter the organ parenchyma, bile ducts or peritoneum. In the liver, bubbles are located in its right lobe. The first pronounced symptom is pain in the right hypochondrium. Then there is nausea, diarrhea, appetite disappears. When a cyst squeezes the bile ducts, a person develops obstructive jaundice. Suppuration of the cyst provokes the appearance of a liver abscess, when it is opened, purulent pleurisy develops. If it ruptures and the contents enter the bile ducts, purulent cholangitis, allergic reactions with the possibility of developing anaphylactic shock, and secondary echinococcosis develop.

Echinococcosis of the gallbladder

The bile ducts are included in the pathological process a second time when a cyst breaks through them. In this case, hepatic colic, fever, chills, nausea and vomiting occur. Often there is a blockage of the ducts, which is accompanied by cholecystitis, septic cholangitis, hepatitis. At the same time, the risk of death is very high. Such cysts are removed only by surgery.

Echinococcosis of the lungs

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This pathology is observed in 20-30% of people with echinococcosis. When a cyst grows, it begins to squeeze closely spaced tissues, provoking the appearance of pain in the chest, coughing with blood, shortness of breath. A person's body temperature rises, intoxication appears, the chest is deformed, pneumonia, pleurisy occurs. With suppuration, the cyst ruptures and fluid flows into the pleural cavity, which is manifested by hemoptysis, shortness of breath and cyanosis, atelectasis or lung abscess, aspiration pneumonia. In some cases, the mediastinum is displaced, cardiac tamponade is observed, anaphylactic shock and death develop.

Echinococcal cyst of the brain

This form of the disease is observed in 9% of people with echinococcosis. When the parasite enters the brain, a capsule of connective tissue is formed around it, which is surrounded by the brain tissue altered due to inflammation, and hemorrhages can occur. The disease is accompanied by pain in the head, dizziness, impaired vision and sensitivity, convulsions of the limbs and seizures of epilepsy. Often, a person develops mental disorders in the form of dementia, delusional states or depression. With the progression of the disease, intracranial pressure increases, which is often fatal. Most often, cysts form in the white matter of the occipital, frontal and parietal lobes.

Echinococcal cyst of the spinal cord

When the cyst grows to a small size, it compresses the spinal cord, causing movement and sensitivity disorders. With the location of the larvae in the vertebral bodies, the disease is asymptomatic, the symptoms of the disease begin to appear only when they significantly increase in size, provoking compression of the spinal cord. This is accompanied by pain in the limbs and chest. Gradually, kyphosis or kyphoscaliosis develops, characterized by limited mobility of the spine, as well as spastic paraparesis, Brown-Séquard syndrome.

Echinococcosis of the heart

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This disease is observed in 2% of people with echinococcosis who are over twenty years old, sometimes the ailment is present in children. Helminths, transferred with blood to the heart, slowly grow there, forming cysts for five years. In frequent cases, damage to the left ventricular myocardium occurs. With this pathology, cysts may rupture and fluid enters the pericardium or cardiac cavity, which provokes the development of myocardial ischemia, pulmonary artery embolism. This is accompanied by pain in the chest, heart failure, tachycardia, heart block, which can lead to myocardial infarction. Rupture of cysts provokes sudden death.

Echinococcosis of the spleen

This pathology is inherent in 6% of patients with echinococcosis, it is caused by an enlargement of the spleen, thickening of its capsule, atrophy of organ tissues, which provokes hemorrhages and the development of necrosis. Over time, the cyst grows outside the organ, displacing the stomach, left kidney, liver, small intestine. If the bladder ruptures, the abdominal cavity may be damaged, which is accompanied by vomiting, diarrhea, and internal bleeding.

Echinococcosis of the kidneys

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Most often, the left kidney suffers from ailment, it is displaced, deformed, and atrophy of the parenchyma occurs. The disease is manifested by a decrease in appetite, weakness due to intoxication. The cyst gradually begins to grow in the hypochondrium, provoking incessant pain, colic in the kidneys, an increase in body temperature, itching and blood eosinophilia. Blisters can pass with urine, which is accompanied by colic, pyelonephritis, dysuria and others. Suppuration and rupture of the cyst leads to leukocyturia.

The bubbles that are located in the lower part of the organ provoke impaired renal mobility, the development of proteinuria, pyuria, hematuria, eosinophilia, leukocytosis. Death can occur if the bubble bursts.

Echinococcosis of bones

This pathology is quite rare in modern times. In this case, the bubble grows in the bone cavity, which leads to pathological dislocations and fractures, the appearance of erosion. Usually, the disease proceeds slowly without showing symptoms, this happens until the deformation of the bones becomes visible. With fractures and the addition of an infection, the symptoms change greatly, which manifests itself in an increase in body temperature, the formation of swelling and swelling of tissues. Complicated disease provokes the development of various pathologies, including tumors.

Diagnosis

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Diagnosis of the disease

In modern times, the diagnosis of pathology is rather difficult. To make an accurate diagnosis, it is necessary to carefully study the history, where contact with human animals is considered. An infectious disease specialist prescribes a blood test using ELISA, RNGA and RNIF. Very often, skin-allergic and immunological tests, the Casoni reaction are carried out. Also, diagnostic methods include ultrasound, radiography, MRI, MRI, CT, angiography, laparoscopy, bronchoscopy. Often, duodenal contents and sputum are studied, bronchography, puncture cholangiography are performed. It is very important to differentiate the disease from tumors of internal organs and the brain, avelococcosis, bacterial abscesses and others.

Treatment of the disease

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You can completely get rid of the disease only by a surgical method. Echinococcectomy is most often used, which consists in exfoliation of the cyst. If the bladder is huge, intraoperative puncture and aspiration of cystic fluid are first performed. Further, the location of the cyst is treated with antiseptics, tampons are applied, drainage is carried out, and then sutured tightly. When carrying out surgery, it is necessary to prevent the ingress of cystic fluid to the surrounding organs and tissues so as not to provoke the appearance of secondary echinococcosis.

If the cyst cannot be excised, doctors resort to wedge resection or lobectomy, often a lobar or segmental resection is performed. After the operation, the patient is prescribed antiparasitic therapy.

Forecast and prevention

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What not to do

In the case of a successful surgical intervention, in which re-infection did not occur, the prognosis of the disease is favorable, in this case there are no relapses. If an infection occurs, then after two years a relapse of the pathology occurs with the formation of a large number of cysts, the prognosis will be unfavorable. Echinococcosis with delayed treatment often leads to death due to complications. Therefore, it is important to follow the preventive measures of the disease.

For the purpose of prevention, regular monitoring of animals is carried out: vaccinations, deworming, improvement of their conditions, etc. Dog owners or hunters should be aware of the serious consequences of this disease and observe personal hygiene measures.

People who have been operated on must be under the supervision of a doctor for ten years. They are required to undergo serological tests, ultrasound and x-rays every year. Sanitary educational work also plays an important role.

Personal prevention of pathology

Everyone should be aware of the danger of infection with helminths, so doctors recommend limiting contact with dogs, washing hands well after the street, as well as before eating and after working on the land. You can not eat dirty food, drink raw water.

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