ENTEROBIOSIS - What Is It, Symptoms And Treatment

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ENTEROBIOSIS - What Is It, Symptoms And Treatment
ENTEROBIOSIS - What Is It, Symptoms And Treatment

Video: ENTEROBIOSIS - What Is It, Symptoms And Treatment

Video: ENTEROBIOSIS - What Is It, Symptoms And Treatment
Video: What causes enterobiasis & signs to look out for? - Dr. Rajasekhar M R 2023, March

What is the insidiousness of enterobiasis


  • 1 Life cycle of pinworms
  • 2 Clinic of enterobiasis
  • 3 Symptoms
  • 4 Diagnosis of enterobiasis
  • 5 Consequences of the disease
  • 6 Treatment of enterobiasis
  • 7 Traditional methods

    • 7.1 Pumpkin seeds
    • 7.2 Milk with garlic
  • 8 Prevention of enterobiasis

Enterobiasis is the most common parasitic disease caused by intestinal lesions with round white worms - pinworms. According to statistics, in almost 80% of cases, it is pinworms that become helminthiasis provocateurs. The length of an adult female is usually about 1 cm, in contrast to the male, which is half the size. In female parasites, the posterior end is pointed, which was the name of the parasite.

Pinworm life cycle


Pinworm life cycle

The activity of female helminths is manifested at night, when the sphincter of the sleeping person is as relaxed as possible, which will allow pinworms to freely crawl out and lay eggs in the perinatal region. One female at a time is able to lay from 5 to 15 thousand eggs, then she dies.

Favorable conditions for the development of the larva from the laid eggs are high humidity and temperature (within 34 - 36 ° С), and for their full maturation only 4-6 hours are needed. The best places for this are nails, perinatal folds, and perineum. In the human gastrointestinal tract, the larvae are released through the action of digestive enzymes.

In adult helminths, pinworms grow in 10 - 20 days and are immediately ready for mating, after which the males leave the body, and the females begin to migrate to the small intestine. Attaching to its wall, they feed on the contents of the organ until the larvae matured inside them reach the desired size. After that, the detached female descends through the large intestine to the rectum to lay eggs and begin a new cycle of helminth development.

Human infection occurs when scratching, which provokes severe itching. The eggs of the worms fall on the hands and, with insufficient hygiene, re-infection occurs. In addition, cockroaches, flies and household dust are very often carriers of pinworms.

Clinic of enterobiasis

Helminths are fixed in the human intestine, feeding on its contents and blood. The most suitable conditions for the development and growth of pinworms are the cecum and the appendix adjacent to it. A person infected with enterobiasis usually does not experience painful sensations. The main feature that gives out the presence of pinworms is severe itching.

In addition to annoying itching, pinworms in an adult's body provoke:

  • Deterioration of immunity;
  • Eczema and dermatitis;
  • Development of appendicitis;
  • Intestinal inflammation;
  • disruption of the gastrointestinal tract, which leads to the appearance of gastritis or ulcers.

In women, pinworms that have penetrated the vagina often cause various kinds of gynecological inflammations - endometritis, vulvitis or vaginitis.

The most dangerous is enterobiasis during pregnancy. Its presence in the body of a pregnant woman is fraught with the appearance of toxicosis and various dermatoses. Sometimes the disease is passed on to the baby through breast milk.


The severity of symptoms of pinworm infection depends on the degree of parasite infestation, as well as individual manifestations and reactions of the body to the presence of helminths. In case of primary infection, the acute phase lasts about seven days, at which time there is nausea, frequent irregular bowel movements, abdominal discomfort, mainly in the morning.

After a few days, the itching disappears and appears already, as a result of reinvasion, after four weeks, when the next generation of pinworms matures. The acute form of enterobiasis is characterized by:

  • Intestinal pain;
  • Nausea;
  • Morning discomfort in the digestive tract;
  • Stool up to 4 times a day.

Intensive invasion is distinguished not only by itching, but also by a burning sensation in the anus and perineal region, which continues to bother the patient not only at night, but throughout the day. These symptoms are usually joined by:

  • Bloating (flatulence);
  • Pain as from an attack of appendicitis;
  • Diarrhea;
  • Sleep disturbance;
  • Lack of appetite.

Based solely on clinical manifestations, it is rather difficult to determine the presence of enterobiasis. In order to identify the invasion and make the correct diagnosis, a laboratory study of the material is necessary.

Diagnosis of enterobiasis

Itching in the perianal-rectal zone is considered to be the most pronounced symptom of enterobiasis. However, it must be borne in mind that similar symptoms can be observed in diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hemorrhoids, rectal cancer, neurodermatosis, Trichomonas colpitis.

Diagnosis of enterobiasis has several stages:

  1. Interviewing the patient, in which the causes of complaints and the time of the onset of the first symptoms, as well as the presence of a similar clinical picture in any of the family members, are found out.
  2. Examination under a microscope. The material is taken in the morning, when female helminths have laid their eggs around the anus on the skin. A cotton swab is used for the manipulation. The material taken in laboratory conditions is placed on glass, then examined under a microscope. In order to exclude contamination, it is recommended to conduct several studies.
  3. A laboratory blood test is another reliable test to identify parasites in the human body. Blood is usually taken from a vein and by the presence of characteristic deviations in the indicators, the presence of helminths is determined.

Eosinophilia, when the body is infected with helminths, shows an increase in eosinophils - blood cells. Normally, their presence should not exceed 0.5 - 1%. Eosinophils are responsible for the neutralization of histamine and other biologically active substances that are formed as a result of the influence of parasites on the body, in particular pinworms.

Pinworm eggs in rare cases can be found in urine by centrifuging it, followed by examination under a microscope of the resulting sediment. Parasite eggs most often enter the urine from the perianal folds, as well as from the hands of patients. Sometimes pinworm larvae are detected in liquid feces for diarrhea provoked by various reasons.

In medical practice, there are many cases when eggs, adult helminths or their fragments were identified during histological examination.

Consequences of the disease

Getting into the intestine and thoroughly attaching to its walls, pinworms feed not only on its contents. Poisoning of the body with the waste products of helminths often causes allergic reactions. When enterobiasis occurs:

  • Violation of the processes of digestion of food;
  • The mechanical effect of helminths in the intestines provokes erosion and punctate hemorrhages;
  • Parasitism with pinworms suppresses immunity, which contributes to a person's susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections;
  • The presence of enterobiasis significantly reduces the level of magnesium, zinc and copper in the blood;
  • Penetration of helminths into the appendix provokes appendicitis;

Toxins secreted by pinworms lead to nervous system disorders, headaches, insomnia and decreased physical and mental activity.

Enterobiasis treatment


Enterobiasis treatment

Pinworm control takes place on an outpatient basis and includes a large range of appropriate measures. First of all, these are:

  • Examination for the presence of pinworms of all family members;
  • Objects infected with helminths must undergo simultaneous deworming;
  • In order to prevent re-infection, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures;
  • Two weeks after treatment, it is important to retest for the presence of parasites in order to confirm their absence.

For the treatment of helminths in adults, the doctor prescribes drugs similar to those for children, only in a higher dosage, taking into account the patient's weight. There are few drugs that are really effective for enterobiasis. Most often, in the presence of pinworms, they are prescribed:

  • Pirantel;
  • Mebendazole;





  • Piperazine;
  • Levamisole.





Nemozole is a potent anthelmintic drug and has many similar effects. Therefore, it is recommended to use it in the presence of severe enterobiasis and additional helminthic invasions, for example, giardiasis.

For the maximum effectiveness of the prescribed drugs, it is necessary to avoid eating foods that strengthen the stool the day before treatment. It is better to take pinworm preparations in the morning, after which, in the late afternoon, use a laxative to speed up the process of removing parasites from the intestines. This is especially true for those helminths that are still alive.

A prerequisite for the treatment of pinworms is to take the drugs again, after 2 weeks. Since many drugs for helminths are detrimental only to adults, the eggs remain intact.

If the invasion is accompanied by severe itching, in order to alleviate the condition, it is recommended to take antihistamines (Loratodin, Citrine, etc.). This measure is also necessary in order to prevent scratching of skin areas, which contributes to their spread to clothing and other parts of the body. To relieve severe itching, use a soda enema; for manipulations, 2 tablespoons of soda dissolved in 1 liter of water will be enough.

In addition to taking medications, getting rid of pinworms should take place subject to certain rules:

  • Wash hands thoroughly and regularly with soap and water;

  • Cut your nails short and wash them with a brush;
  • Iron underwear on both sides and change twice a day;
  • Conduct regular disinfection of the toilet;
  • Do daily wet cleaning.

Traditional methods

Pumpkin seeds


Pumpkin seeds in the fight against enterobiasis

The most common folk method of dealing with pinworms is the seeds of an ordinary pumpkin. Their destructive effect on pinworms and other types of helminths is due to the unique properties of the gray-green film that covers the vegetable seeds. Previously peeled seeds are not suitable for fighting worms, so you need to clean them yourself.

To treat an adult, you need 300 grams of peeled pumpkin seeds. To prepare the medicine, the seeds must be rubbed in a mortar, and then mixed with honey (100g). This mixture is consumed on an empty stomach, then nothing is eaten. After 4 hours, you need to drink any laxative and make an enema. Approximately half an hour after a complete bowel movement is allowed to eat.

Garlic milk


Garlic milk

To prepare a medicine for parasites, you need to slightly warm milk (250 ml) in a small container and add five cloves of chopped garlic. Then the mixture is brought to a boil, after which it is boiled over low heat for no more than 10 minutes. The medicine is cooled until it cools completely and filtered through a fine sieve or gauze layer.

It is recommended to store the product in the refrigerator. For adults with enterobiasis, it is enough to take the resulting broth on an empty stomach, for one week. The mixture should be drunk in a tablespoon, 30 minutes before meals.

Prevention of enterobiasis

In order to prevent infection with pinworms and other types of helminths, a person does not need supernatural efforts, but only adherence to elementary rules:

  1. Regular and prolonged hand washing with soap and water, especially before eating, as well as after using the toilet and using public transport;
  2. Before use, fruits must be thoroughly washed with hot water or pre-scalded with boiling water;
  3. It is not allowed to use raw water for drinking;
  4. Meat and fish should be subjected to prolonged heat treatment;
  5. Since flies are spreading infections and various parasites, try to protect your home from their invasion as much as possible;
  6. Swimming in water bodies near which there are pastures is not recommended.

Doctors recommend carrying out annual preventive deworming (preferably in autumn) without laboratory tests.

To exclude re-infection with enterobiasis, preventive measures should be carried out by members of the same family at the same time, including pets. In order to avoid the occurrence of allergic reactions and side effects, medical advice is required.

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