Dwarf Chain - What Is It, How To Get Tested And Treated

Table of contents:

Dwarf Chain - What Is It, How To Get Tested And Treated
Dwarf Chain - What Is It, How To Get Tested And Treated

Video: Dwarf Chain - What Is It, How To Get Tested And Treated

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Advanced prenatal genetic testing 2023, February
Anonim

What is the difference between the dwarf tapeworm and the rest of the helminths

Content

  • 1 Acquaintance with the dwarf tapeworm
  • 2 Symptoms of dwarf tapeworm invasion
  • 3 Diagnosis of hymenolepiasis
  • 4 Treatment of tapeworm

    • 4.1 Traditional medicine

      • 4.1.1 Fenasal
      • 4.1.2 Biltricide
      • 4.1.3 Mepacrine
    • 4.2 Traditional methods

      • 4.2.1 Wormwood and tansy
      • 4.2.2 Pumpkin seeds
      • 4.2.3 Ready herbal infusions
  • 5 Prevention of hymenolepiasis

Dwarf tapeworm is a representative of tapeworm parasites, scientifically named Hymenolepis nana. Infection with this type of helminth is called hymenolepiasis, the symptoms and manifestations of which we will consider below.

Acquaintance with the dwarf tapeworm

Image
Image

Acquaintance with the dwarf tapeworm

The dwarf tapeworm is the smallest among its fellows: its length reaches 15-50 mm with a thickness of up to 1 mm. The tapeworm body is divided into 3 zones:

  • The head, or scolex, on which there are 4 suckers and 20-30 chitinous hooks;
  • The neck is a site that transforms into the main body during the development of the parasite;
  • Strobila is the body of a helminth, consisting of 200-300 flat segments in which eggs ripen.

The main feature of the helminth is that the life cycle of the dwarf tapeworm is completely possible within one organism. Worms of this species are hermaphrodites, they contain organs for the production of viable eggs. The main carrier of the parasite is humans, although the invasion is also observed in animals, and some insects act as intermediate hosts.

Infection occurs when the eggs of the dwarf tapeworm are accidentally swallowed. After entering the upper part of the small intestine, the egg enters the tissue phase, that is, it sheds the outer shell and is introduced into the mucous membrane or villi. After 4-8 days, a kind of embryo turns into a cysticercoid, or a larva with a developed scolex, with the help of which the parasite is firmly attached to the epithelium. The tapeworm becomes a full-fledged sexually mature individual by the end of the third week from the beginning of the life cycle. From this point on, the helminth can produce eggs, causing repeated self-infection.

Sources of infection can be:

  • Contact with the carrier of the helminth through personal belongings, touch, household items;
  • Water into which eggs can get from soil or faulty sewers;
  • Foods contaminated by intermediate hosts - mice, flies, bugs.

Most of the carriers of the parasite are children and adolescents under 14 years of age. This is due to the fact that this category is constantly in mass contact with each other in child care facilities or on a walk, not always observing hand hygiene.

Symptoms of dwarf tapeworm invasion

Flatworms are active in the host's body, absorbing nutrients from the intestinal walls throughout the body. Since the life cycle of a dwarf tapeworm from an egg to a mature helminth takes place within one organism, the population of parasites inside an infected person grows rapidly. If a dwarf tapeworm lives in the intestine, the symptoms in a person from the side of well-being are manifested as follows:

Image
Image
  • Disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, diarrhea, abdominal pain;
  • Decreased performance, fatigue, sleep disorders;
  • Deterioration or loss of appetite;
  • Irritability, headaches;
  • Seizures;
  • A sharp decrease in pressure, dizziness, loss of consciousness;
  • Anemia;
  • Weight loss.

When gimenolepidoze may increase the temperature to 38 to C in the intestine bacteria overgrowth develops. With a long period of helminthiasis, dysfunction of the digestive system can lead to peptic ulcer and liver pathologies. The waste products of parasitic creatures are carried throughout the body, causing allergic reactions and intoxication. Blood impurities in the feces and a decrease in the hemoglobin index are due to mechanical damage to the epithelium and small capillaries in the intestine. In the presence of such symptoms without obvious diseases, it is necessary to undergo a diagnosis for the presence of helminths.

Diagnosis of hymenolepiasis

Image
Image

Diagnosis of hymenolepiasis

Dwarf tapeworm treatment involves confirmation of the presence of the parasite. The size of the eggs is so small that it is impossible to detect them without a microscope, therefore the analysis for hymenolepiasis is carried out only under laboratory conditions. A referral for diagnosis is prescribed by a doctor based on the patient's complaints, usually this is a three-fold examination of feces with an interval between procedures of 5-7 days.

If you are assigned an analysis for hymenolepiasis, you should know how to take it correctly:

  1. The volume of the biomaterial must be at least 5 g;
  2. Eggs are quickly destroyed in the external environment, for the diagnosis to be effective, it is necessary to deliver feces to the laboratory within 2 hours after bowel movement;
  3. If it is not possible to urgently take the material for analysis, it should be stored in a special sterile container in the refrigerator, but not more than 8 hours (the optimal location of the jar is the middle shelf of the refrigerator).

To increase the chance of detecting worms, it is advisable to prescribe in an incomplete dose of special drugs that destroy the segments of the worm and release the eggs. In case of severe invasion, the doctor may prescribe an additional examination of the intestine to compile a general clinical picture.

Tapeworm treatment

We have already found out about hymenolepiasis, what it is, the ways of transmission of the worm and the main symptoms of invasion. Therapy of this type of helminthiasis should be complex, carried out in several stages and consist of repeated courses. This is due to the fact that drugs for parasites destroy only adults, leaving the larvae unharmed. The repeated courses are calculated so that the "matured" larvae are already exposed to the active substance, but have not yet had time to lay new eggs.

Traditional medicine

Image
Image

Doctor's treatment

The tapeworm Hymenolepis nana is eliminated by the drugs Fenasal, Biltricid, Mepakrin and their analogues. When such a "guest" as a dwarf tapeworm is found, treatment should be comprehensive. Due to the toxicity of helminths, you will first have to prepare the body for taking such a drug, and then smooth out the damage. For full therapy, you will have to go through the following stages:

  1. Preparing the body. Includes taking hepatoprotective, adsorbing agents. With concomitant pathologies, the affected organs should be supported with medicines. To enhance the medicinal effect, the patient is prescribed a diet.
  2. Taking an antihelminthic drug along with an antiallergic agent in accordance with the doctor's recommendations.
  3. Recovery phase. During this period, the course of antihistamines should be continued, since both the main medicine and the decay products of worms can cause severe allergies. In parallel, you need to take again funds to restore the liver and normalize the intestinal flora. It is recommended to drink a course of complex vitamins to replenish the resources "stolen" by helminths.

The satisfactory treatment of hymenolepiasis directly depends on the correctness of the therapy regimen. The dosage of medicines is calculated individually for each patient, depending on the spread of helminthiasis, age and general condition. An approximate scheme for receiving funds from a dwarf tapeworm looks like this.

Fenasal

Therapy can be prescribed in several variations:

Image
Image
  1. The drug is drunk once a day on an empty stomach in a daily dose according to the scheme: 2 days of administration - a week break (2-3 such repetitions will be required);
  2. Take the tablets once on an empty stomach for 2 days (the respite lasts 4-5 days, but such courses will need 5-6);
  3. The most common way is to drink Fenasal 4 times a day on a tablet, each time from the moment of the meal 2 hours should pass (in this mode, the treatment lasts 4 days, then take a break for 4-7 days, you will have to repeat it from 2 to 4 times).

Biltricide

Image
Image

Biltricide

The tool is used once, the norm is 25 mg per 1 kg of weight. The medicine is characterized by a strict age restriction (allowed from 4 years old), a prohibition for pregnant women in the first trimester and nursing mothers. With a strong invasion, a second dose is indicated in a week.

Mepacrine

Image
Image

Adults are prescribed to divide the morning dosage of 300 mg into 2 doses, which should be drunk at intervals of 20 minutes. On the first day of treatment with Mepacrine, a saline laxative should be taken 2 hours after the second dose. The course lasts 3 days, followed by a week's rest. You need to repeat 4 such cycles.

An extensive list of contraindications and adverse reactions is attached to each of the listed medications. Reading the instructions should not be neglected to avoid other health problems.

Due to the peculiarities of the development of the parasite and the complexity of dealing with it, after treatment, it will be necessary to regularly take repeated tests and prevent hymenolepiasis.

Traditional methods

If you have a dwarf tapeworm, treatment with folk remedies will not have the desired effect. It is advisable to apply age-old advice together with the main therapy or in between courses, after consulting a doctor. With hymenolepiasis, treatment with "grandmother's" recipes includes several methods.

Wormwood and tansy

Image
Image

Sagebrush

Image
Image

Tansy

To prepare the broth, pour 200 ml of boiling water over a teaspoon of wormwood inflorescences. Wrap up, allow to cool naturally and strain. Divide the broth into 3 equal parts, drink during the day before meals. The tansy remedy is made in the same way, but it is enough to take it in 1 tbsp.

Pumpkin seeds

Image
Image

To achieve the effect, you should start with a diet - a couple of days before consuming seeds, eat light food, avoiding flour, fatty and meat dishes. On the first day of the diet, make a cleansing enema at night, on the second, drink a laxative.

The seeds must be cleaned, leaving the green film in place - this is the secret of the product's success in baiting parasites. For one meal, an adult will need 300 g of seeds, which must be finely crushed with honey (2 tablespoons) to a mushy state. Eat the mass at a time, do not stretch the pleasure for more than an hour. Drink a laxative after 3 hours.

It will take 3-4 episodes with a week break between repetitions.

Ready herbal infusions

Such products are usually sold in pharmacy chains. They consist entirely of natural ingredients, but the main advantage is a carefully selected complex of elements that have shown themselves well in the fight against worms.

With helminthic infestation by any kind of helminths, it is recommended to daily eat hot and acidic foods - garlic, pungent and spicy spices, grapefruit, lemon, radish, pepper, horseradish, pomegranate, etc.

Prevention of hymenolepiasis

The overwhelming majority of carriers of hymenolepiasis are humans, and not everyone knows about their own condition. To reduce the risk of infection or to protect yourself from re-invasion, follow these recommendations:

Image
Image
  1. Use boiled water for drinking, rinse food with it;
  2. Do damp cleaning of your home regularly, iron bed linen and clothes with an iron after washing;
  3. Actively fight insects at work and at home, as they can be intermediate hosts of worm larvae;
  4. Since eggs live outside the comfort zone for only a few hours, basic hygiene rules will prevent infection (wash your hands after using public transport, going to crowded places, after using the bathroom, etc.);
  5. Without waiting for obvious symptoms, donate feces for prevention once a year.

It is good if children's institutions regularly conduct mass screening of children for helminthiasis. Timely identification of a child with an invasion will save other children from infection, and for the treatment of an early stage, fewer repetitions of aggressive drugs will be required.

In conclusion, we note that when a dwarf tapeworm is detected, symptoms and treatment should be related. In case of damage to the intestines, liver, stomach, the condition of the organs should be taken into account when drawing up a therapy plan.

Hymenolepiasis is difficult to treat, it may take several months to completely defeat the disease. Therefore, only a specialist should make a decision on taking medications. Complete disposal of the dwarf tapeworm is possible only with a combination of therapy with diet and careful hygiene, otherwise self-infection will be repeated further.

Popular by topic