Table of contents:
- Liver fluke life cycle and infection treatment methods
- General characteristics of the parasite
- Worm infestation options
- Symptoms and manifestations of infection
- How is the disease detected?
- Treatment of infection
- Treatment with folk remedies
- Preventive measures
- Summing up
Video: Hepatic Fluke - Ways Of Infection And Prevention Methods
Liver fluke life cycle and infection treatment methods
- 1 General characteristics of the parasite
- 2 Variants of infection with helminths
- 3 Symptoms and manifestations of infection
- 4 How is the disease detected?
- 5 Treatment of infection
- 6 Treatment with folk remedies
- 7 Preventive measures
- 8 Summing up
The liver fluke is a parasite of common flatworms or flukes. Infection with this parasite leads to the development of such a dangerous disease as acute and chronic fascioliasis. This pathology requires mandatory and timely treatment.
General characteristics of the parasite
The structure of this parasite is special. The body of the body is a bit like an oblong leaf. The size of the helminth depends on the category to which it belongs. There are giant individuals such as the liver fluke. It reaches a length of about 7 cm and a width of 1.5. In most cases, common fasciola is found, the average length of which is 3 cm. The parasites have a special color - usually it is white-gray.
Organisms are attached to the liver with the help of simple suction cups that are present on the abdominal and also in the oral cavity. As for reproduction, the female helminth can lay up to 40 thousand eggs at a time.
Among other structural features of the parasite, it can be noted that it is able to produce female as well as male sexual elements at the same time. Immediately after complete fertilization, the development of the larvae starts.
Also, all organisms do not have a standard anus, that is, all consumed and digested substances are removed through the mouth.
Important! The fluke differs from numerous analogues in that its life cycle with all its metamorphoses is characterized by a large number of very different changes.
The general development cycle of liver fluke, harmful to the body, is quite long. The eggs of organisms from time to time enter the water at the same time as the feces of cows or pigs raised in agriculture. After a month, larvae usually appear, which are called miracidia. They are completely covered with small cilia, through which they can easily move in the aquatic environment. These organisms feed on a wide variety of trace elements.
After penetrating into a special organism, these parasites continue to develop and grow already in this carrier. In its capacity are special snails or a small pond snail. It is here that miracidium in a short time is transformed into a sporocyst, into a special cell that tends to develop independently.
At the end of this life cycle and all periods of transformation, the fluke breaks down into redia and, as such, settles in the liver part of the mollusk. The liver, in turn, immediately begins to decompose.
In the form of redium, the development of cercaria is carried out, the larva of a fully matured worm appears. After this, the general development cycle of the parasite continues outside the previously selected organism. After a standard exit to the outside world, the individual is fixed on plants and continues its rapid development with a simultaneous change in structure. Metamorphosis consists in covering with a shell. In this form, the individual expects a carrier and is called adolescaria.
Important! The fluke very often chooses livestock - pigs, sheep or horses as the final owner. No less often, such an ultimate carrier is a person.
Having settled in a new organism, for example, in humans, parasites can cause quite serious harm to general health. Being here, the individual feeds on various nutrients that enter the body simultaneously with food. In other words, parasites take from a person all the nutrients he needs.
Worm infestation options
After the worms enter the body of an ordinary person, from the effect of natural enzymes on it, cysts begin to break down and pass into the liver through the bile ducts. In this part of the body, for about 5 months, the parasite goes through the maturation stage until full maturation.
At the end of this period, the fluke begins to reproduce quite actively. In some cases, the worms lay such a number of eggs that completely blocks the bile ducts, causing an allergic reaction or poisoning.
As for the main sources of infection, in most cases these are herbivorous mammals. There are several ways to get into the human body:
- Unwashed or poorly processed fruits and vegetables, especially those watered with fresh water;
- Entertainment in water bodies with nearby grazing cattle;
- Eating fish or meat, poorly processed thermally;
- Sand games;
- Gardening or agricultural work;
Disregard for personal hygiene rules.
As you can see from all of the above, there are a lot of infection options. Due to the fact that at the initial stage the disease does not manifest itself in any way, a person should be tested for parasites from time to time. This will avoid a destructive effect on the liver and on the entire body as a whole.
Symptoms and manifestations of infection
The disease can be chronic or acute. The second option is characterized by special symptoms and signs, among which we can note:
- The temperature rises to about 39 degrees, which lasts for several days;
- Various allergic itching manifestations;
- The worm tends to cause severe pain to the articular parts of the body and muscles;
- The appearance of pain in the abdomen;
- Vomiting after severe nausea, which is exhausting;
- Violation of the frequency of daily stools, that is, the alternation of constipation with diarrhea;
- Rapid loss of appetite;
- Wounds formed on the intestinal mucosa, as well as damage to the lungs;
- Enlargement and pain in the liver.
For six months, such characteristic signs can both increase and subside. This is the time period characteristic of the acute phase. If you do not pay attention to these signs, the patient will more and more often begin to manifest such ailments as apathy, drowsiness and weakness.
The behavior of an infected person becomes easily excitable and irritable. Often, patients mention sleep disturbance.
Symptoms of the chronic stage may be accompanied by slightly different signs. The main characteristic features of this state include:
- Persistent nausea;
- Dull pain in the abdomen;
- Cysts, all sorts of tumors on organs in the body;
- Decrease in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood;
If the individual is not removed from the body in a timely manner, there is a risk of encountering quite serious complications. A person, as a rule, is faced with the development of a bacterial infection, and the liver is so badly damaged that acute cirrhosis can develop. At the same time, the cardiac, endocrine and immune systems are affected.
Often, the fluke, in addition to the symptoms described above, is manifested by yellowness of the skin surface, itching, and a rash. As a result, there are scratches on the arms and legs, which create a huge number of problems.
Important! If a person has liver problems such as cholecystitis, hepatitis or other diseases, the doctor will first prescribe special tests to exclude the parasite from entering the body.
How is the disease detected?
To make an accurate diagnosis, the doctor examines the patient's skin and collects all complaints. Analyzes carried out in laboratory conditions deserve special attention.
You can confirm the diagnosis through the following studies:
- Immunological examination;
- A blood test from a finger, which can determine an increased level of eosinophils and leukocytes;
- Stool examination;
- ESR check, which is typical for the development of a bacterial infection;
- Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity;
A high result can be achieved when carrying out liver tests, since infection with a fluke leads to an increase in bilirubin and phosphatase.
After collecting all the tests, the doctor can make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe the most suitable treatment. Therapy in all cases will consist of three main stages - preparatory, main and recovery period.
Treatment of infection
Throughout the treatment, the patient is prescribed a diet that completely excludes spicy, fatty, and overly salty dishes, and various seasonings and additives are also excluded.
If the disease passes in its acute stage, the general treatment regimen at the first stage will look like this:
- Hepatoprotectors or drugs such as Essentiale, Rezalut;
- Modern antihistamines;
- To eliminate intoxication - activated carbon or enterosgel;
- Various enzyme preparations - Festal, Mezim or Creole;
- Choleretic drugs - Allohol, Cholenzym, Hofitol;
In case of severe poisoning of the body, Prednisolone is prescribed.
All of the above drugs are indispensable for the preparatory period. They effectively remove all harm to the body, which is caused to a person by the vital activity of the trematode
At the end of this period, anthelmintic treatment begins directly. When treating an infection with a hepatic fluke, specialists prescribe several main drugs - Triclabendazole, Bithionol. If a bacterial infection joins, you will need to take antibiotics.
So, how each of the modern medicines is drunk:
- The parasite itself is excreted with the help of the drug, Triclabendazole. The remedy is especially effective in relation to helminths of a fully mature or special immature form, that is, it has a specific focus. The drug is ideal for fascioliasis. The effect of the drug is paralysis on the neuromuscular system of the helminth and its subsequent death. The dosage should be calculated as follows - 20 mg per 1 kg of weight.
- Bithionol. The drug completely destroys the membrane of the worm, then causes paralysis of the body, and also disrupts the basic metabolic processes in the parasite. Experts prescribe about 40 ml of medicine per 1 kg of body weight. You need to take the drug three times a day and always after eating.
- Praziquantel. This drug also causes paralysis of the muscular system in helminths after the complete destruction of the outer shell. These tablets are taken after eating, you do not need to chew them, but drink a small amount of clean water. The drug is not prescribed for children under the age of 4 years.
Chloxyl. After using the drug, paralysis of the nervous system of the parasite that has settled in the body is observed. The medicine is taken for two days.
After using these medicines, the process of restoring the body, freed from worms, begins. For the reason that the hepatic fluke disrupts the work of the entire digestive system, and also knocks down the functioning of the whole organism as a whole, a kind of rehabilitation period must necessarily be.
The recovery process consists of the following activities:
- The normalization of the functioning of the liver and gallbladder is carried out through the use of drugs such as Holiver, Holosas, Allohol, Holagol;
- A significant improvement in liver function, its protection and its restoration is provided by modern hepatoprotectors. It can be drugs such as Ursosan, Galstena, Silymarin;
- Normalization of the digestive system using enzyme medicines. Pancreatin, Creon, Panzinorm will help here perfectly;
Significant improvement in metabolism, for which multivitamins are prescribed.
By following this treatment regimen, you can quickly get rid of parasites and completely restore your body. Compliance with the rules of therapy and the help of a highly qualified specialist are important, but not the only factors in a quick recovery.
Timeliness is very important. The earlier the application is defined, the easier and faster the therapy will pass and the positive result will come.
If the infestation by parasites is very intense, if a secondary bacterial infection has formed, the prognosis will be significantly worse and more complicated. According to medical data, especially severe cases are fatal.
Treatment with folk remedies
An equally good result can be achieved through the treatment of helminthic infection with folk remedies. It should be noted right away that such therapy should be carried out exclusively separately from medication. The reason is that the massive death of parasites can cause a very serious intoxication of the body and worsen the patient's condition.
One of the most effective methods of dealing with helminths is the use of birch tar. It can be purchased without any problems at a regular pharmacy. To prepare a medicinal infusion, you will need to take a few drops of a liquid solution and dilute them in a quarter glass of milk. The ready-made composition is required to be drunk one hour before eating, but no more than once a day.
Birch tar therapy lasts strictly 9 days. After that, a break is made for about three weeks and the described treatment regimen is repeated again. Then the full course is repeated with a break.
Particularly noteworthy is the number of drops of tar used. On the first day, 2 drops are added to the milk, then until the fifth day the daily dose is increased by two more drops every day. Due to this, 10 drops are added to the milk on the fifth day. Starting from the sixth day, on the contrary, you need to take away two drops. By the end of each nine-day course, two drops remain, that is, exactly as on the first day of admission.
An equally good result can be achieved by treatment with aspen bark. To prepare a medicinal infusion, you need to take 20 grams of raw materials and pour 500 ml of boiling water over them. All this is left overnight for insisting. The healing properties of the bark will remain after boiling the composition, which lasts about 25 minutes.
Ready and thoroughly strained bark infusion is used before each meal about 30 minutes before eating. The total treatment time in this case is 2-3 weeks.
Along with this, you can use such treatment options with folk remedies as infusions, decoctions and enemas. Here are some of the most basic recipes:
- Garlic enema. You will need to crush a clove of garlic and pour 200 ml of water over it. After the broth is infused, it must be filtered and an enema done.
- Enema for the night with linseed oil. The main component is poured into a tablespoon and then poured into a glass of water. An enema is done with the resulting solution. Here it is advisable to try to keep the solution inside until morning.
- Tea tree oil enema. In half a glass of water, 8 drops of oil are added and an enema is done with the resulting composition.
- Application of lemon broth. Lemon juice is diluted with a glass of water. All this needs to be boiled and drunk on an empty stomach.
Treatment with pomegranate broth. A teaspoon of completely chopped pomegranate peel should be boiled in one glass of water. Everything is infused and filtered, and then you can drink the composition one tablespoon at a time and preferably on an empty stomach.
Despite the fact that we are talking about folk remedies, it is not recommended to take them uncontrollably. There are many risks here, since a large number of dead helminths that have not left the body can do no less harm.
Treatment of helminths with folk remedies must be carried out under medical supervision.
Effective prevention of hepatic fluke is a complex of various measures. This is the only way to completely prevent the development of such a dangerous pathology:
- It is strictly forbidden to drink raw water from ordinary fresh reservoirs;
- Fruits, various vegetables, berries, herbs must be very carefully processed and washed before being eaten;
- It is advisable to completely refuse to eat raw fish.
A very important role in the process of fluke prevention is assigned to modern services operating at the state level. Employees of such organizations are obliged to prevent water pollution in all possible ways, to protect it from the ingress of feces, and also throws a lot of effort into the fight against the reproduction of shellfish.
The doctors are entrusted with the task of the most timely treatment and subsequent management of patients who are recorded as carriers of the parasite. Careful attention is paid to their treatment, it must be of high quality and effective. The common person is equally responsible. At the slightest suspicion of infection, you should immediately contact an experienced infectious disease specialist.
Parasites in the form of a liver fluke are quite unpleasant guests for humans. These individuals take away all the most useful things from him, consume all vitamins and trace elements that come with food. Along with this, worms greatly harm the entire digestive process as a whole. These circumstances automatically lead to the fact that a person develops anemia, immunity is greatly reduced with all the ensuing consequences.
It is for this reason that it is so important to take care of yourself, the food that is taken every day, and carry out preventive treatment. This is the only way to maintain yourself and your health at the proper level throughout your life.