Table of contents:
- What types of parasites are the most dangerous for the human body, ways to fight at home
- The danger of helminthiasis for humans
- Types of helminths
- Sources of infection
- Symptoms of helminthiasis
- Diagnosis of the disease
- Helminthiasis therapy
- Traditional methods of treatment
Video: Parasites In The Human Body - Symptoms And Treatments
What types of parasites are the most dangerous for the human body, ways to fight at home
- 1 Danger of helminthiasis for humans
2 Types of helminths
- 2.1 Nematodes
- 2.2 Trematodes
- 2.3 Cestodes
- 3 Sources of infection
4 Symptoms of helminthiasis
- 4.1 Intoxication
- 4.2 Allergies
- 4.3 Weight change
- 4.4 Hyperthermia
- 4.5 Disorders in the digestive tract
- 4.6 Anemia
- 5 Diagnosis of the disease
- 6 Therapy of helminthiasis
- 7 Traditional methods of treatment
Helminthiasis is the most common disease on the planet. Parasites lived before our existence and easily adapt to any climate change.
Some parasites in the human body live side by side with us all our lives and do not cause major health problems. But most species destroy the host organism and cause various pathologies.
The danger of helminthiasis for humans
Parasitic agents multiply and live in the host's body, causing significant changes in the body. This leads to the development of chronic diseases that constantly recur.
Localization of parasites can be located in any part of the human body, but more often helminths settle in the organs:
- In the joints;
- In the muscles;
- In the liver and kidneys;
- In the organs of vision;
- In the lungs;
- The blood system.
Most types of helminths prefer to live in the intestines, but with an acute invasion, the parasites are forced to migrate. Moving through the body, parasites cripple organs that come their way. Migration can be provoked by improper treatment in folk ways.
Home methods are based on eating bitter herbs and substances that are not to the taste of worms. Protozoa leave the intestines in search of a more suitable environment for their life.
The body of a sick person is more susceptible to various diseases, the immune system loses its functionality. An infected person is more likely to suffer from viral and infectious diseases.
The human body reacts sharply to the remains of the vital activity of parasites. The victim has symptoms of intoxication, an allergic reaction worsens. The processes occurring in the body after infection are not of a transient nature, and a person may not notice the parasitic agent for years.
Types of helminths
Parasites that cause health problems in humans are divided into three groups:
- Protozoa or protozoal parasites. This group includes toxoplasmosis, lamblia, Trichomonas. Protozoa settle inside a human cell and, multiplying, destroy it. The method of transmission is household and sexual.
- Helminths are worms or larvae that settle inside the human body. Among the most common are: bovine tapeworm, pinworms, toxocaras, roundworms, pinworms. Transmission methods: household, insects, animals or dirty soil.
Ectoparasites - live outside the human body: ticks, lice, lichen. The main source of nutrition is human blood. Wounds appear on the skin, bites itch and hurt. The danger in the various infections that they carry: typhoid, encephalitis.
Infection with helminths is considered the most difficult in treatment and diagnosis. It is important to recognize the signs of parasites in your body and know their main types.
In another way, nematodes are called roundworms. It got its name from the shape of the body. More than 45 varieties of nematode worms are found inside humans. The parasite spreads easily through personal hygiene items and unwashed vegetables or fruits. The size of a roundworm, depending on the variety, starts from a few millimeters and ends in tens of centimeters.
Among the most common roundworms are:
- Pinworms - the main habitat - the human intestine, the length of the worm is up to 1 cm. When infected, a person manifests symptoms: disruption of the gastrointestinal tract, exhaustion, anemia, sleep disturbance.
- Roundworms - the length of the worm reaches 30 cm, it is able to migrate and settle in various parts of the body. When a person becomes infected, symptoms appear: an allergic reaction, anemia, asthma, dermatitis are aggravated. Once in a person's eyes or liver, roundworms can lead to serious diseases.
- Trichinella - the size of the worm is only 2-3 mm, the main habitat is the intestines. When infected, it causes the following complications in a person: edema, an allergic reaction, disruption of the gastrointestinal tract, fever.
Vlasoglav - lives in the digestive tract, the size of an adult is up to 4.5 cm. In humans, the parasite causes: anemia, weakness, poisoning of the body.
The severity of the disease is related to the number of parasitic agents in the body, their types and localization.
Fluke flukes have a flat body. All types of trematodes have suction cups, with which they are fixed to the walls of internal organs. The parasites feed on blood, nutrients and other secrets. Only adults parasitize in the human body.
Before human infection, trematodes go through an intermediate stage of their life in the body of another host: in a fish, animal, insect. Most often it enters the human body together with poorly processed food.
Among the common species, there are trematodes:
- Opisthorchus or feline fluke - the body of the worm has a length of only 1-2 cm, the main localization: pancreatic ducts, gallbladder, liver. In humans, causes diseases: gastritis, ulcers, cholecystitis, pancreatitis. It is transmitted from animals to humans. Due to its localization in hard-to-reach places, the parasite is difficult to diagnose.
Strongyloid or intestinal acne is a small flatworm up to 2 mm long. To settle in the digestive tract. After infection, a person manifests pathologies: anemia, asthma, bronchitis, asthenia, infertility.
All types of trematodes easily migrate through the body, causing mechanical damage to the internal organs of a person
A parasitic tapeworm that lives in the human digestive tract. In length, cestodes reach several tens of meters. It gets to a person from an intermediate owner - a large animal: a cow, a horse. The larvae enter the human body from poorly fried animal meat, which a person eats.
Among the most common types of tapeworm are:
- Broad tapeworm - lives in the small intestine. In length, it can reach 3-5 m. In humans, it causes diseases: anemia, intestinal obstruction, digestive disorders.
- Pork chain - to settle in the human intestine. The length of the tapeworm reaches 7-8 m. The patient manifests itself: obstruction of the esophagus, teniidosis, cysticercosis.
Bovine chain is the largest of the human parasites. In length, the worm can reach 18 m. A person has intestinal obstruction, irritability, allergies.
Larvae of all types of cestodes are capable of damaging internal organs and provoking the appearance of a tumor.
Sources of infection
The main type of transmission of helminthiasis is household. Possible sources of infection are:
- Personal hygiene items: towel, toothbrush, comb, bed linen;
- Dirty hands;
- Toilets in public places;
- Insufficiently processed meat or fish;
- Unwashed vegetables, berries and fruits;
- Unboiled water from a tap or open source;
Some types of parasites are sexually transmitted. These include trichomoniasis
To prevent infection, you need to maintain personal hygiene and wash your hands with soap and water several times a day. In the absence of water and soap, it is recommended to treat hands with an antiseptic solution.
Vegetables and fruits are washed in running water before eating. Apples, pears and other fruits that are used with the peel are recommended to be washed with a special product or laundry soap. Animals in the house are treated every 6 months from helminths with the help of special preparations. Boil water before drinking, a young child is given special bottles: Fruto Nanny, Aqua for children, etc.
Children have their nails cut once a week. The dirt under the nails is cleaned every day. It is easier to clean your nails with an old toothbrush or a special file.
Symptoms of helminthiasis
The clinic of damage to internal organs differs depending on the localization of parasites in the body. But there are general symptoms that appear when infected with any of the types of agents.
Parasitizing in the human body, the helminth leaves the products of its vital activity. The patient receives poisoning, which is manifested by the following symptoms:
- Decreased appetite;
An allergic reaction manifests itself at the initial stage in the form of a skin rash that is difficult to treat. After treatment, the rash disappears, but after a certain time it appears again. In young children, diathetic rashes are observed on the cheeks, neck, groin and armpits. Skin rashes are due to toxins that worms release.
When infected with helminths, a person can lose weight. Weight loss is associated with the struggle for nutrients that the parasite consumes. But small parasitic agents can trigger weight gain. Once in the bloodstream, unicellular organisms disrupt blood circulation, and the body's metabolism slows down. A person develops swelling, weight increases.
Against the background of secondary pathologies in a patient with helminthiasis, the temperature periodically rises to 37.5 degrees. The temperature rises for no apparent reason and is accompanied by weakness, general malaise. The person is tired, wants to sleep all the time. The symptom goes away on its own, as unexpectedly as it appeared.
Disorders in the digestive tract
Digestive disorders are associated with intoxication of the body and the development of parasites in the intestines. Symptoms resemble dysbiosis, and the patient is given the wrong treatment.
If the digestive tract is disrupted, symptoms are observed:
- Unstable stools (diarrhea and constipation);
Pain in the stomach.
The parasitic agent feeds on nutrients that are intended for the host. A person does not receive the required amount of vitamins and minerals. The iron level in the blood falls. The patient experiences weakness, general malaise. The skin and mucous membranes turn pale. Poor condition is accompanied by dizziness and frequent fainting.
If any of the listed symptoms appear, you should contact a specialist and undergo a complete examination of the body for the presence of helminths.
Diagnosis of the disease
Before prescribing treatment, it is necessary to determine what type of parasite the body is infected with and where the worm is located. Most drugs are designed to combat a specific type of helminth. There are universal drugs, but their effectiveness is lower, and they have more side effects.
The type of pathogen is determined by the following types of examinations:
- Analysis of feces for eggs of the parasite;
- General blood analysis;
- Immunoassay blood test;
- Analysis of the secretion of the duodenum;
- Ultrasound of the gastrointestinal tract and liver;
If the result is negative, some research methods are reappointed. The easiest way to determine the presence of an adult parasite in the human body. During the incubation period, tests show a negative result.
When a parasite is diagnosed, the doctor will immediately prescribe an appropriate treatment.
Treatment of helminthiasis is multi-stage and will take time from the patient.
At the first stage, the body should be prepared and cleansed of accumulated toxins. Sorbents are prescribed to the patient: Smecta, Activated carbon, Neosmectin. Cleansing the body of toxins lasts at least five days.
At the second stage, anthelmintic drugs are prescribed to the patient. It is better if the drug is selected individually for a specific type of parasite. When infected with nematodes, drugs are effective: Vormil, Albendazole, Vermox.
When trematodes are detected inside the body, they are prescribed: Chloxil, Bithionol. From cestode parasites help: Nemozole or Meparkin. The stage of forcing the parasites is carried out in two courses. The first course will kill adult helminths in the human body. After 10-14 days, the adult worms will be replaced by new ones, which will hatch from the laid eggs. The second course will kill new individuals.
The most important is considered restorative - the third stage of treatment. At the third stage, the work of the gastrointestinal tract, liver and immune system is restored. The patient is prescribed a course of sorbing drugs: Alma-gel, Smekty.
After taking sorbents, it is recommended to take drugs that help in the digestive tract: Festal, Pancreatin. The drugs are food enzymes and help to digest food. The dosage is selected individually depending on the patient's weight and secondary diseases.
Multivitamins are added at the same time: Vitrum, Multitabs. And to maintain immunity are offered: Immunal, Echinacea tincture.
Any therapy is carried out under the supervision of a specialist. If helminthiasis is caused by infection with flukes or tape parasites, then therapy is carried out in a hospital. Removing certain types of parasites requires surgery.
Traditional methods of treatment
All antihelminthic medications are toxic and contraindicated for pregnant women. You can drive out parasites using folk methods that have no side effects.
Plants have a pronounced anthelmintic effect: tansy, wormwood, flax, cloves, ginger.
A popular herbal preparation is Troichetka from Evalar. The drug is simply made at home: tansy, wormwood, 10 pcs are mixed in equal parts (1 teaspoon each). carnations. The ingredients are used dry. Everything is ground and mixed. Take 1 teaspoon of the product a day with plenty of water.
Fresh ginger helps to expel parasites. The root is crushed and consumed 1 teaspoon three times a day. To improve the taste of ginger, add 1 teaspoon of honey and a few drops of lemon juice to the mixture.
Pumpkin helps to drive out parasites. Its taste is pleasant, but helminths do not like it. The therapy uses pumpkin oil, infusion of seeds and pumpkin pulp.
As a preventive measure, homemade trochatka or pumpkin seed oil is drunk every six months. Of the pharmaceuticals used for prevention, Pirantel, Vormil.
During treatment, the patient adheres to a certain diet: sugar, flour and yeast-containing products, milk, butter are excluded from the diet. The main part of the menu is made up of vegetables and dairy products.
Any types of parasites strike the body and, after the worms are expelled, they begin to treat secondary pathologies.
Any treatment should be controlled by a specialist who will determine the type of helminths and select an effective drug for treatment.