Table of contents:
- The causative agent of trichocephalosis - what is it and how to treat it?
- Stages of whipworm development
- Genesis of the disease
- Etiology of helminthiasis
- The clinical picture of infection with whipworm
- Complications of trichocephalosis
- Methods for diagnosing pathology
- Treatment methods
- Helminthiasis prevention measures
The causative agent of trichocephalosis - what is it and how to treat it?
- 1 Stages of whipworm development
- 2 Genesis of the disease
- 3 Etiology of helminthiasis
- 4 The clinical picture of infection with whipworm
- 5 Complications of trichocephalosis
- 6 Methods for diagnosing pathology
- 7 Treatment methods
- 8 Prevention measures for helminthiasis
Trichocephalosis or trichurosis belongs to the category of geohelminthiasis, one of the most common types of nematodes on earth. The area of popularization of invasion is the territories of the tropics and subtropics, in rare cases, countries with a temperate continental climate.
Helminth is characterized by a high level of susceptibility to the human body and is capable of infecting all groups of the population, including children aged 1 to 15 years.
The main place of dislocation of the parasite when it enters the body is the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Let's consider trichocephalosis in more detail for a better understanding of what it is and how to deal with this pathology.
Stages of whipworm development
Trichurosis provokes helminth of the genus roundworms, whipworm. In appearance, the nematode is filamentous with an elongated front end of the flesh, which is about 2/3 of its size, and a short thick tail. Depending on the sex of the parasite, its rear part may differ slightly in shape - in the female, it is saber-shaped, like a curved arc, in the male? twisted into a spiral.
Also, helminths are not the same in size - the length of the male is no more than 3-4.5 cm, while the size of the female can vary from 3.5 to 5.5 cm.
The life cycle of the whipworm begins with the external environment, the soil, in which the eggs of the parasite, under the influence of oxygen and atmospheric moisture, evolve to the state of an invasive larva. The entire period of maturation of the parasite under favorable conditions takes only 4 weeks, in other cases, the duration of the development of the helminth can stretch for months.
The whipworm lives in the environment for 1–2 years. The parasite tolerates ultraviolet rays well and is quite sensitive to low temperatures. However, in a temperate climate, it can maintain its vital activity even under a layer of snow.
In the human body, helminth larvae enter the fecal-oral route through contaminated soil and products. The most susceptible to trichocephalosis are people whose profession is related to the cultivation of the land or direct contact with it - sewers, excavators, gardeners, personnel for the maintenance of sewer networks and drainage systems.
In addition, animals, including pets, insects and birds, contribute to the spread of the disease. The eggs of the helminth penetrate into the soil through its feces of a person with trichurosis.
The main place of concentration of the parasite is the cecum, appendix and the ascending colon. The attachment of the whipworm occurs using the mouth opening at the front end of the helminth's body.
The parasite acts as an antagonist, invading the body by piercing the mucous and submucous layers of the intestine, as well as its muscular membrane. The life span of a whipworm is up to 7 years. At the same time, the helminth is characterized by high reproductive activity and is capable of producing up to 3 thousand eggs per day.
The presence of nematodes in the human body has an extremely negative effect on the quality of his life, worsening both the physical and psycho-emotional state of the patient.
Genesis of the disease
The helminth has a versatile effect on the body of its owner - mechanical, toxic and allergic. Penetrating into the surface layers of the intestine, the nematode reliably attaches to its walls, forming small infiltrative foci, edema and erosion in the places of introduction.
The whipworm feeds on the tissue fluid of the organ, sometimes with circulating blood. Being an optional hematophage, the helminth can absorb up to 0.005 ml of liquid per day. The nematode parasitizes exclusively in the human body, making it the main source of infection and the carrier of trichocephalosis.
Like all worms, the whipworm is characterized by increased toxicity and traumatic ability. "Sewing" the mucous membrane of the organ, the helminth provokes microscopic hemorrhages and wounds, which act as a fertile ground for the penetration of pathogenic flora into them and the development of inflammatory processes.
Often, trichurosis is accompanied by iron deficiency anemia due to constant blood loss, as a result of its absorption by the helminth and mechanical damage to the blood vessels. Most of all, with helminthiasis, intestinal motility and the central nervous system (CNS) suffer.
In invasive patients, cramps in the epigastric zone and symptoms of a peptic ulcer of the duodenum or stomach are often observed. Mimicking various functional diseases, the nematode successfully adapts to the internal environment of the gastrointestinal tract and can be in the body for years.
Etiology of helminthiasis
Vlasoglav - helminth is quite hardy and is able to withstand any climatic conditions - drought, temperature fluctuations, ultraviolet light and cold. Their vitality lasts up to 2 years. In the field of epidemiology, parasite infestation is seasonal and often occurs in the first months of spring (April, May) or autumn (October, September).
The most frequent patients with nematode infection are children aged 7–12 years. There are also cases of infection with worms of an adult. This is mainly due to direct contact with a patient with trichocephalosis or professional activity.
The most typical reasons for the development of helminthiasis are:
- Failure to comply with the rules of personal hygiene, dirty hands;
- Poorly washed or completely unwashed vegetables, berries and fruits;
- Unclean or poorly filtered water;
Helminth loves a damp, warm environment and feels good in semi-dark, humid and polluted places
The clinical picture of infection with whipworm
The body's response to a parasitic infection depends on the immune properties of the patient's body, the intensity of infection and the presence of concomitant pathologies. With a slight invasion, the patient feels normal, there are no manifestations of intoxication.
The severe form of trichocephalosis is characterized by severe symptoms. Thus, the greater the infection with nematodes, the more varied and more intense the manifestations of the disease.
As helminthiasis progresses, the patient has complaints associated with:
Loss or decreased appetite;
- Bloody diarrhea, such as ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease;
- Epigastric cramping pain;
- Increased salivation;
- Irritability, fatigue, and apathy;
- Sleep disturbance;
- Increased motility and dysfunction of the digestive tract;
- Convulsive seizures like epilepsy;
- Uncomfortable sensations similar to gastritis symptoms;
- Low blood pressure (BP);
- Lagging behind in the physical development of young children.
Trichurosis proceeds in acute, chronic, manifest, subclinical and compensated form. The nature and severity of clinical signs in each of these cases is not the same and has its own specific characteristics.
Complications of trichocephalosis
- Injury to the intestines and disruption of other organs;
- Frequent urge to defecate and severe diarrhea, which eventually becomes chronic;
- Anal bleeding and rectal prolapse;
- Connection with other invasions (ascariasis) or acute intestinal infections;
- Cracking in the anus and the development of hemorrhoids;
- Attack of appendicitis;
Methods for diagnosing pathology
The diagnosis of trichocephalosis is based on a differential examination, the purpose of which is to identify helminth eggs in the feces of diseased eggs and to exclude background pathologies.
Detect whipworm using:
- Laboratory analyzes of feces, blood and urine;
Blood biochemistry research.
Due to the fact that the intensity of infection in a patient with helminthiasis is often weak, it can be quite difficult to identify a nematode the first time. Therefore, they resort to repeated analyzes of feces for worm eggs.
The whipworm is taken out with special anthelmintic drugs, the action of which is aimed at reducing the muscles of the parasite and paralyzing it. The dosage and medication are selected taking into account the patient's immunity, his age, tolerability of medications and the level of helminth intoxication.
Also, the course of therapy can be supplemented with auxiliary immunomodulatory and fortifying agents:
- Iron preparations;
The number and type of medications are adjusted depending on their therapeutic efficacy and susceptibility to the patient's body. The entire period of treatment, infected with trichocephalosis is under close medical supervision.
The duration of the course is determined by the severity of the invasion. For the same reason, the issue of hospitalization of the patient in a hospital is being resolved. However, as a rule, treatment takes place on an outpatient basis, at home.
During the entire period of therapy, the patient must strictly adhere to sanitary and hygienic rules, carefully monitor the purity of the products he uses and, if possible, limit tactile contact with other people. A control examination of feces for helminths is carried out one month after the completion of treatment.
Removal of the patient from the register is carried out only with a positive research result. Also, as a preventive method, people who have had close contact with those who have had trichocephalosis can be examined.
Helminthiasis prevention measures
The measures preventing the development of helminthiasis are identical to the standard anti-invasive intestinal measures and are based on the implementation of general hygienic standards:
- Boiling drinking water drawn from wells or open reservoirs;
- Thoroughly washing vegetables, berries and herbs before eating them;
- Frequent hand washing using regular toilet soap;
- Cleansing and protecting the soil from fecal contamination;
- Avoiding contact of insects with food;
- Disinfection with antiseptics of cesspools and drainage systems.
Cleanliness and adherence to sanitary measures guarantee protection against infestation and serious health problems.