Table of contents:
- Symptoms of human whipworm infection, methods of treatment
- Vlasoglav - a method of infection
- Reproduction of the parasite
- What are the consequences of infection
- Vlasoglav - symptoms of infection, treatment
- How does trichocephalosis manifest in children
- How is the diagnosis made?
- How is the treatment
- Preventive measures
Video: Vlasoglav Human - Symptoms, Treatment And Methods Of Infection
Symptoms of human whipworm infection, methods of treatment
- 1 Vlasoglav - method of infection
- 2 Reproduction of the parasite
- 3 What are the consequences of infection
- 4 Vlasoglav - symptoms of infection, treatment
- 5 How does trichocephalosis manifest in children
- 6 How is the diagnosis made
- 7 How is the treatment
- 8 Preventive measures
Human Vlasoglav is a nematode parasite that lives in the large intestine. It is one of the most common worms found in the human body. After ascariasis, it ranks second among worm lesions.
If a person has a whipworm, treatment will be quite successful with timely medical attention. Timely selected antihelminthic therapy allows you to quickly get rid of the worm without any problems for the body.
Vlasoglav worm got its name due to the shape of the body - its front part is long, thin, like hair. Moreover, its rear part is noticeably wider. In females the body is 5.5 cm long, in males - 4.5 cm.Their colors can be different - from grayish-white to reddish. On the body of the worm there are transverse lines. Barrel-shaped eggs can be light brown, yellow, enclosed in shells.
Vlasoglav - a method of infection
They become infected with whipworms by oral-fecal methods. The process may look like this: the eggs that the parasite has laid in the body, along with human feces, go outside, then they ripen. After that, they are already capable of infecting other individuals. To become infected, a person only needs to swallow them.
The most suitable habitat for a worm is the earth, it must be moist, with good air access, for the development of a worm, its temperature is considered optimal at 25-30 degrees. But the eggs die in the sun. Under favorable conditions, the usual ripening stage will last 3 or 4 weeks.
When a whipworm parasite enters the ground in the fall, it will develop to a state of invasiveness, having overwintered, only by the spring of next year.
Due to special climatic preferences, the zone where the worm is able to develop well is determined quite accurately. The disease reaches its greatest peak in areas with high humidity, in the tropical, subtropical, temperate geographic zone.
In cold areas, he is not able to survive, rarely, but still sometimes found in the USA and the CIS. Having an understanding of the optimal conditions for the development of whipworm eggs, it is possible to determine the approximate objects of infection.
First of all, people living in shaded and damp areas are susceptible to invasions. They are more likely to come into contact with soil contaminated with water, especially the danger of infection for workers in the field of agriculture. Added to the already dangerous situation is the generous sprinkling of vegetable gardens with manure, and sometimes the contents of the toilets cesspool are thrown there.
The eggs of the parasite from the ground fall on garden gifts, berries and herbs, fruits and vegetables. Without heat treatment or thorough washing, when eaten, the eggs end up inside the human body. Also, water is often infected, especially water that is obtained from natural sources. Such water cannot be consumed without boiling - eggs remain capable of development and end up in the intestines.
The use of a drainage system only partially solves the problem, since eggs can end up on the walls of the toilet and toilet bowl, the handle of the tank, and so on. By touching them with their hands, an infected person can leave infection on all surfaces, including doorknobs, coins, any things.
Flies can become carriers of the infection, even together with dust, eggs of worms can be inhaled. The human body, already infected with parasites of another species - ascaris, pinworms, becomes an especially favorable environment for infection.
Basically, the disease affects those who are inaccurate in observing the rules of personal hygiene. Therefore, young children are often victims of infection.
Reproduction of the parasite
After a person swallows whipworm eggs, they enter the gastrointestinal tract and further develop there. Vlasoglav development cycle is simple. In the small intestine, larvae hatch from the eggs, they quickly penetrate the mucous membrane and after a couple of weeks move into the large intestine. They are located between the villi of the inner surface, and the host's blood serves as food for them.
In a whipworm, the life cycle proceeds rather quickly - after three months the individual becomes sexually mature and can produce its own kind. In the host's body, they can live for 5 or 6 years.
Parasites with sharp ends pierce the mucous membrane in the intestine, the cells of which, under the action of a specific secretion, become a substrate suitable for consumption by parasites. The host's blood is also a fairly nutritious part of the diet. The parasite's saliva contains substances that prevent it from curdling.
The whipworm worms can be contained in the intestines in large quantities - there can be several pieces, and several thousand, and one of them can drink 0.5 ml of human blood per day. Females are capable of producing about 50 thousand eggs per day. After they enter the rectal lumen, after a while, they can be expected to be removed. Then they turn into a source of infection for other living individuals.
What are the consequences of infection
A disease that begins due to damage to the gastrointestinal tract by the whipworms is called trichocephalosis. If there are not so many parasites in the human body, no more than a hundred, and there has been no re-infection, the disease often goes away with almost no symptoms. In some cases, the sick note the presence of pain in the abdomen - they can be spastic, stabbing, but small in intensity.
Symptoms with whipworm infestation are much stronger, if there are many individuals - in the most severe cases, death is not excluded.
With the introduction of worms into the intestinal mucosa, hemorrhages and infiltrates, necrosis, erosion can form. If the invasion is especially strong, bleeding can be quite significant, sometimes becoming chronic. At the point where the parasite has invaded, inflammation begins, the intestinal wall swells in this place. With such damage, a very favorable environment is created for the manifestation of secondary infections.
The most common complications are inflammation of the cecum, appendicitis, colitis, and infectious diseases. When the whipworms pierce the intestine through and through, conditions favor the development of peritonitis, abscesses.
The fact that there is a human whipworm in the child's body may be indicated by symptoms such as growth problems and mental retardation. Due to the fact that the worms consume a large amount of trace elements, vitamins, and other nutrients entering the body, the absorption processes are impaired.
Constant irritation of the intestinal nerve endings by parasites provokes motor disorders. Problems with the absorption of fluids lead to diarrhea, stool liquefies, and due to trauma to the intestinal walls, it is saturated with blood and mucus.
A large number of worms in the body leads to chronic diarrhea, pulling pains begin, a person constantly feels the urge to empty the intestines. If prolonged diarrhea continues in children, in combination with poor absorption of food, it often causes rectal prolapse. Many parasites in the body contribute to the strongest intoxication.
The waste products of worms are poisonous and often cause allergies. When toxins are released, problems arise with metabolic processes, due to damage to the nervous and muscle tissues, the body's work is disrupted.
Disorders of the central nervous system, necrosis, blockage of the bile ducts, intestinal obstruction are not uncommon, there may be other disorders of the body.
Vlasoglav - symptoms of infection, treatment
The effect of the parasite on the work of the digestive tract can primarily be in the form of excessive accumulation of gas inside the intestines, which is accompanied by flatulence, diarrhea or constipation, and minor bleeding may occur. Diarrhea is a frequent companion of trichocephalosis.
In the iliac region, the patient may feel pain-like pains, which can also be given to the stomach or other parts of the abdomen. Also, joint pain is not uncommon, the temperature rises to 38 degrees.
The fact that whipworm worms have appeared in the body, symptoms may be evidenced by such as vomiting, strong salivation, constant heartburn, the patient's mouth smells unpleasant, he can involuntarily gnash his teeth
As a result of poor appetite, body weight is significantly reduced. As a result, general weakness sets in, a person's performance is greatly reduced because of this. The disease is accompanied by fever, which gradually brings the sick person to exhaustion. The person may complain of headache, palpitations, and dizziness.
If the defeat by the whipworm is not very significant and proceeds in a mild form, the work of the organs is most often not impaired, but nevertheless, unpleasant sensations are present. A frequent companion of the disease is insomnia, as a result, irritability and loss of strength. The voice loses its resonance, muscles can lose strength, meningitis can develop, and children have seizures and fainting.
Allergic reactions to the presence of a whipworm in the body can occur - then a rash is noted on different parts of the body, the nose is stuffy, ugly spots appear on the skin, and it itself becomes bled and pale.
The human body reacts differently to the appearance of parasites. If they are there one at a time or in the amount of several individuals, you may not even notice it.
How the disease will proceed will largely depend on what the individual characteristics of the organism are, as well as on other diseases from which a person suffers during the same period.
How does trichocephalosis manifest in children
Children, especially younger preschool children, are most susceptible to the influence of the parasite. Due to their age, they do not understand the importance of hygiene, and the immune system has not yet developed enough to provide good protection. Therefore, it is not uncommon when the body of a small child is affected by a parasite.
Infected children often lag behind their peers in development, which often becomes a reason for ridicule. One of the signs of infection with whipworm is prolapse of the child's rectum, as well as itching in the anal area. By constantly scratching the itchy area, the child only aggravates the situation.
It will be most effective to see a doctor immediately as soon as parents notice unwanted symptoms.
The infected child is irritable, he starts having problems with defecation, he complains of abdominal pain, and stops being interested in games and communication with peers. Parents should carefully monitor the baby's condition if he begins to complain about such conditions.
How is the diagnosis made?
To diagnose the disease, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the patient's complaints. The overall picture is complemented by the results of analyzes and research. It is worth trying to exclude diseases with similar symptoms, such as intestinal infections or gastroenteritis.
Among the analyzes, a study of feces is necessarily performed. Vlasoglav in feces during the initial diagnosis may not be detected, but after a couple of weeks, the study is repeated to obtain accurate results. The necessary information can also be obtained from a blood test.
When performing sigmoidoscopy, which involves examination of the intestinal mucosa, you can see edema and, in some cases, adult worms.
How is the treatment
If a human whipworm is found, the symptoms are checked, treatment can be prescribed in different directions. This is either the destruction of the parasite in a place with larvae and eggs, or measures aimed at mitigating the consequences of their activity.
During treatment, medications are used that actively act on the detected worm, antispasmodics and pain relievers, antihistamines. In case of serious damage to the body, the patient can be admitted to a hospital for treatment. The mild form lends itself to outpatient treatment. Persons living with the patient are also examined.
Treatment usually lasts a long time, and the set of measures is selected depending on the age and weight of the patient. If whipworm is found, pills are used more often to treat adults; for small children, you can purchase a medicine in the form of a suspension.
It is better not to consume meat or other animal products during treatment. If they do not enter the body, the parasites of this species become weakened - then it is easier to cope with them.
The consequences of infection are eliminated with the help of separate drugs. A completely healthy person is considered in cases where no eggs of the parasite appear during fecal examinations for a week. Then the patient will be observed in the dispensary for two to three years, periodically he needs to take a feces test, the same is repeated for his household. If eggs of worms are found, another treatment course is prescribed.
After you manage to get rid of the whipworm, you should constantly carry out the prevention of re-disease. It is subdivided into personal and public. Personal hygiene means maintaining personal hygiene, washing vegetables and fruits under clean running water, and dubious drinking water must be boiled.
It is not easy to get infected through common items, so it is not necessary to provide special conditions in housing. Those citizens who often work in close contact with the ground should be regularly screened for parasites.