Table of contents:
- Symptoms and pathogens of parasitic diseases
- List of parasitic diseases
- Why are parasites dangerous?
Video: Human Parasitic Diseases And Symptoms Of Infections
- 1 Symptoms and pathogens of parasitic diseases
- 2 List of parasitic diseases
- 3 Why are parasites dangerous?
Parasites are microorganisms that enter the human body, infect internal organs and systems, and lead to various clinical manifestations. Parasitic disease is not the only disease. This phrase implies a separate group of pathologies that are provoked by unicellular and multicellular pathogenic microorganisms. An unpleasant "neighborhood" is temporary and permanent. The life cycle of worms has certain features; in some situations, in order to form a full-fledged individual, it is necessary to change three hosts.
Symptoms and pathogens of parasitic diseases
The main causative agents of parasitic pathologies include worms that lead to infection with helminthiases. Helminthiases, depending on the type of helminth, are classified as follows:
- Trematodes. This group of diseases involves fluke infection. For example, the defeat of the internal organs by a pulmonary fluke, hepatic fluke, cat fluke, etc.;
- Nematodes is a parasitic infection caused by round worms. The source of infection is a sick person. Pathogens include ascaris, pinworms, toxocar, Trichinella, whipworm;
- Cestodoses develop as a result of the parasitism of tapeworms. Among them, the most common helminths include bovine and pork tapeworm, dwarf tapeworm, broad tapeworm, alveococcus and echinococcus.
In addition to helminthiases, parasitic diseases are protozoal - infection with the simplest parasites - lamblia, the causative agent of malaria, toxoplasma, Trichomonas. Also ectoparasites - they include lice (clothes, head and pubic), bedbugs and ticks. Dermatoses arise from the parasitic activity of some insects.
Human parasitic diseases have the following symptoms:
- Allergic manifestations are caused by the multiplication of parasites in the body, during which their waste products and toxic substances enter the human circulatory system, which leads to intoxication. Symptoms: red spots on the skin, hives, itching, rash, lichen-like plaques, etc.
- Increase in body temperature. In some patients, against the background of the strongest helminthic invasion, a feverish state is observed. Typically, the temperature varies from 38 to 40 degrees, sometimes it remains within the subfebrile range for a long time. A rise in temperature indicates an acute phase of illness.
Children's preparations for enterobiasis
- Lymphadenitis is a common symptom of human parasitic diseases. This condition is manifested by enlargement and inflammation of the lymph nodes. They can become inflamed one at a time, or all at once. Additionally, the patient has a headache, loss of appetite, and general malaise. In most pictures, those lymph nodes that are closest to the focus of invasion are inflamed.
- Pain in muscles and joints is an echo of immunological reactions in the human body. Immunity perceives the larvae of helminths as alien objects, and begins to attack them. Muscle and joint pain develops as a result of tissue damage by helminth suckers.
- Pulmonary syndrome is manifested by an unproductive cough. The patient complains of shortness of breath against the background of lack of physical activity, pain in the chest. Ascariasis often occurs with the release of sputum mixed with blood.
- Puffiness is localized or spreads throughout the body. Angioneurotic edema is especially dangerous. In the absence of medical care, the likelihood of death is high.
- When infected with helminths, abdominal syndrome is often detected. This sign implies an alternation of constipation and diarrhea, there is increased gas formation, bloating, and disruption of the digestive tract.
- Painful sensations in the abdomen of a different nature. Some patients complain of constant pain, others recurrent. For some, the pain is pronounced and intense, others describe it as dull pain syndrome.
- In the chronic course of helminthiasis, intoxication is manifested, accompanied by severe weakness, a significant deterioration in general health, frequent respiratory and colds, and a sharp weight loss.
The clinical picture of a parasitic disease is always different. Symptoms are based on the localization of helminths, the specific type of pathogen, and the patient's age. And also on the state of the immune system, the degree of dysfunction of internal organs, and other aspects.
List of parasitic diseases
Parasitic diseases are divided into protozoan diseases - malaria, giardiasis, toxoplasmosis, amebiasis, balantidiasis - the most common; for helminthiases, acarosis (scabies) and dermatoses. In medical practice, helminthic invasions are most often encountered.
- African trypanosomiasis. Infection occurs due to the penetration of bacteria Trypanosoma brucei. The routes of transmission are the bite of the tsetse fly. The main clinical manifestations include fever, headaches, myalgia;
- Amoebiasis develops as a result of the penetration of parasites into the human body along with food and water. Pathogens - amoeba or dysentery amoeba;
- Ascariasis. Parasites are roundworms. Infection is caused by the use of contaminated food;
- Babesiosis is caused by helminths that settle in the bloodstream. Infection occurs due to a tick bite;
- Chagas disease (transmitted through the bites of blood-sucking insects);
- Trichinosis is an acute or chronic parasitic disease caused by nematodes;
- Teniarinhoz is a parasite of the bovine tapeworm. The invasive parasite predominantly affects the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms: severe abdominal pain, allergic reactions, headaches, general malaise. The incubation period ranges from 2 to several years;
- Teniosis. The causative agent is pork tapeworm. Parasitic infection is fraught with numerous complications due to the discharge of the segments of the helminth, up to irreversible damage to the brain;
- Opisthorchiasis (helminth - cat fluke). The worm "lives" in the liver, bile ducts, pancreas, gall bladder. Infection occurs with the consumption of raw or poorly cooked fish;
- Clonorchiasis. The reason is the reproduction of the Chinese fluke in the body. In addition to humans, helminth infects cats, dogs and pigs;
- Enterobiasis. The causative agent is pinworms. Parasitic disease is often diagnosed during childhood. Treatment has its own difficulties, since in 99% of cases secondary self-infection occurs.
In fact, the list of parasitic diseases can be continued for a very long time, since there are many parasites that can infect the human body. The most common diseases were given as an example.
Why are parasites dangerous?
What causes a person to have worms?
In most clinical pictures, residents of large cities are infected with banal helminths, round and tape parasites. Pathogenic microorganisms lead to a decrease in immunity, absorb nutrients from their host. But "banal" roundworms and pinworms are not as scary as it might seem at first glance.
People living in tropical countries and tourists who went on vacation to South America, Australia or Africa are really faced with "scary" helminths.
The most dangerous parasites:
- Filariae lead to blockage of blood vessels, as a result of which coordination of movements is impaired, internal organs can refuse.
- Schistosomes are a special type of helminth that lives in human blood. Lead to severe dysfunction of the liver, gastrointestinal tract, bladder.
These parasites are found in countries with a tropical climate; in our realities, pathologies are diagnosed relatively rarely. Science knows more than 200 types of parasites that can lead to the development of acute and chronic pathologies:
- Chronic giardiasis leads to disruption of the liver, cirrhosis develops;
- Trichomonas can provoke cancer, myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, multiple sclerosis;
- With long-term parasitism, roundworms significantly worsen the condition of the gastrointestinal tract, affect the lungs;
- Trichinella. The development of parasites leads to severe pain syndrome, convulsions;
- Toxoplasmas during pregnancy disrupt the intrauterine development of the child, up to mental retardation.
The penetration of parasite larvae into the body occurs imperceptibly. At an early stage of infection, there are no symptoms, when the disease becomes chronic, the clinic is more pronounced. If characteristic signs come to light, you need to be treated - otherwise there is a high probability of serious complications that will have to be dealt with throughout life.