Toxocariasis In Children - Symptoms And Treatment Methods For Toxocara

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Toxocariasis In Children - Symptoms And Treatment Methods For Toxocara
Toxocariasis In Children - Symptoms And Treatment Methods For Toxocara

Video: Toxocariasis In Children - Symptoms And Treatment Methods For Toxocara

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Toxocariasis 2023, February
Anonim
  • 1 How does the infection occur?
  • 2 Symptoms of toxocariasis
  • 3 Treatment of toxocariasis in children

    3.1 Folk remedies

  • 4 Prevention of toxocariasis

One of the most frequent parasitic infections of the Russian population is toxocariasis in children. Children under the age of 14 are more likely to get sick. At the same time, the percentage of morbidity among urban and rural children looks like 40: 60%. In general, the prognosis for such a pathology is favorable. However, if treatment is not started in a timely manner, the parasite can significantly undermine the patient's health, since helminthic invasion can occur latently for up to 3-5 years. We understand below how toxocariasis is formed in children, what symptoms the pathology has and how to deal with it.

How does the infection take place?

how is the infection
how is the infection

It is worth knowing that the root cause of helminthic invasion is the round worm (nematode) toxocara. The biological reservoir for this parasite is the canines (dogs, wolves, foxes, etc.). In rare cases, livestock (sheep, pigs, etc.) can act as carriers of the helminth.

The peak of Toxocara infection occurs in the summer, when the eggs of the parasite actively ripen in the soil (in a warm and humid environment). It was at the same time that children under 14 often come into contact with the ground, playing in the sand, building castles, digging tunnels, etc.

In general, the reasons for infection with a parasitic infection look like this:

  • Eating unwashed vegetables and fruits raised from contaminated soil;
  • Drinking water contaminated with Toxocar eggs from wells and sources of questionable origin;
  • Eating food with unwashed hands;
  • Babies swallowing sand or earth when playing in the sandbox.

Important: in addition, it should be understood that insects can also carry the eggs of the parasite on their paws. In particular, flies and cockroaches should be afraid. Both of them pose a certain danger to humans in terms of contracting toxocariasis in a child or adult.

Once in the baby's body, the helminth eggs ripen to the state of the larva. After that, the parasites enter the bloodstream through the intestinal mucosa. There, the worm forms a protective shell, since the human body is not a natural biological environment for the parasite. In the state of such a capsule, the helminth can stay in the human body for a long time. Moreover, in the zone of its permanent habitation, a chronic inflammatory process begins over time.

Symptoms of toxocariasis

bloating in a child
bloating in a child

The presence of toxocar in a child is evidenced by a characteristic clinical picture, which at the same time is bright (especially in children under 12 years of age). At the same time, it is important to know that symptoms can manifest themselves depending on the form of the pathology. So, the most common form of the disease in children is visceral. In this case, the parasite with blood flow clings to one of the internal organs (heart, lungs, bronchi, gastrointestinal tract, etc.). Most often, the parasite is localized in the liver, lungs or brain. In this case, the symptoms of toxocara in children will be as follows:

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  • Bloating and enlarged liver;
  • Abdominal pain to the right of the navel;
  • Belching and loss of appetite;
  • Bitter taste in the mouth;
  • Nausea;
  • Diarrhea alternating with constipation;
  • Decrease in body weight;
  • Nocturnal cough of the bronchotic type (often dry);
  • Dyspnea;
  • Mental retardation;
  • Inhibition of reaction;
  • Headaches;
  • Dizziness;
  • Decreased reading speed.

If the parasite settles in the heart, then here the symptoms will be as follows:

  • Cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle;
  • Cold limbs;
  • Cough and shortness of breath;
  • Swelling of the legs with damage to the right ventricle of the heart.

If a child develops cutaneous toxocariasis (the larvae of the parasite have settled in the dermis), then the following symptoms will be evident:

  • Allergic rashes like urticaria;
  • Eczema;
  • Itching;
  • Inflammation of the skin.
allergic skin manifestations
allergic skin manifestations

Moreover, allergic manifestations will be more on the part of the skin where the parasite larva has stopped.

With ocular toxocariasis (if the helminth is localized in the eyes), the child will show the following signs and symptoms:

  • Redness of the conjunctiva;
  • Strabismus;
  • Decreased vision in the affected eye;
  • Purulent discharge from the eyes;
  • Pain in the affected organ.

At the same time, regardless of which organ the parasite larva has settled in, the child's immunity in any case starts its attack and as a result, symptoms common to all forms of toxocariasis appear. They look like this:

  • Increase in body temperature up to 38 degrees;
  • Swollen lymph nodes in the area where the helminth has settled;
  • Weakness and fatigue;
  • Headaches;
  • Various allergic reactions;
  • Frequent and protracted infectious diseases against a background of decreased immunity.

Treatment of toxocariasis in children

treatment of toxocariasis in children
treatment of toxocariasis in children

Treatment of toxocariasis in children should be built according to a certain scheme. Moreover, the primary tactic is initially aimed at destroying the parasite and only then at the parallel restoration of the affected organ. The following are used as anti-nematode drugs in the treatment of children:

  • Albendazole. An effective remedy with which you can get rid of the parasite in 10-20 days.
  • Mintezol. The most non-toxic drug, thanks to which the parasite dies in 5-10 days.
  • Vermox. The optimal remedy for parasites for children. The course of treatment can be 2-4 weeks.
  • Ditrazine citrate. No less effective anthelmintic drug. The drug is taken for 2-4 weeks, depending on the severity of the infection.

In addition to anti-nematode drugs, the baby is prescribed symptomatic therapy aimed at eliminating the symptoms of damage to the body by helminths and at restoring it. In particular, the following drugs are prescribed:

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  • Antipyretic. Nurofen, Ibuprofen, Paracetamol, etc.
  • Antihistamines. Zodak, Zyrtec and others are shown.
  • Small amounts of corticosteroids to relieve inflammation and allergies. It can be Papaverine, etc.
  • Adsorbents. Perfectly remove toxins (waste products of the parasite).
  • Probiotics. Designed to restore the intestinal microflora of a small patient.
  • Hepatoprotectors. They restore liver function.

Against the background of toxocariasis therapy, the child is shown a special diet that excludes allergy provocateurs foods. These are citrus fruits, chocolate, red vegetables and fruits, carbonated drinks, fast food, smoked meats and hot spices.

After the child is cured, the pediatrician should be observed for another year. The baby is brought in for examination every 2 months. Any vaccination is contraindicated in a child who has had toxocariasis for another 1-3 months. For the same period, they are also exempted from physical education at school.

Folk remedies

traditional methods of treatment for the parasite
traditional methods of treatment for the parasite

After we have studied the tactics of treating toxocariasis and what it is in children, we can consider alternative methods of treatment for the parasite. However, it is important to understand that independent tactics do not always actively work against worms, but rather only improve the general condition of the patient. In addition, therapy with folk remedies should be carried out only with the consent of the attending physician. It is important to remember that self-medication can not only fail to give the expected effect, but also aggravate the situation.

In particular, the following are distinguished from folk remedies in the fight against toxocara:

  • Using a decoction of ash bark. The bark and young branches of the plant are crushed and a teaspoon of such raw materials is poured with a glass of water. Boil the broth over low heat for about 20 minutes. After that, the drug is well wrapped and insisted for another hour. The finished product is filtered and given to the child in an amount of one tablespoon in the morning on an empty stomach and in the evening before bedtime.
  • Using a decoction of sour. The plant is finely chopped and one tablespoon is poured with boiling water in a volume of 200 ml. The tool is insisted for 3-4 hours. After that, the ready-made infusion can be given to the child two tablespoons four times during the day.
  • The use of garlic and milk enemas. To do this, boil one head of peeled and a little chopped garlic in a liter of milk. The agent cooled down to the optimum temperature is used to enema the child. It is advisable to administer one enema a day for a week.
  • Using wormwood seeds. For this, the seeds of the plant in an amount of one tablespoon are mixed with honey to taste and the child is given this mass three times a day, divided into equal portions.
  • The use of a decoction of tansy. In this case, three tablespoons of flowers and leaves of the plant are poured with a glass of boiling water. Insist the remedy for about 2 hours. Four times a day, take such an infusion, one tablespoon at a time.

Prevention of toxocariasis

Preventive measures to prevent infection with toxocariasis in children and adults should fall on the shoulders of both the parents of the child and the state. In particular, on the part of the child's parents, the following rules must be observed:

  • Monitor baby's hand hygiene;
  • Give your child only thoroughly washed vegetables and fruits for food;
  • Eat only boiled or purified drinking water;
  • Monitor the regularity of deworming pets.

In turn, on the part of the state, the prevention of toxocariasis in children should look like this:

  • A ban on walking pets in public parks and other similar places;
  • Equipment of special areas for walking pets;
  • Catching stray canids;
  • Regular replacement and disinfection of sand in children's sandboxes at playgrounds.

It is worth remembering that it is always easier to avoid the infection of babies through adherence to preventive measures than to deal with the negative consequences of helminthic invasion later. Remember, the health of your children is solely in your hands.

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