Table of contents:
- What is ocular toxocariasis?
- Symptoms of toxocariasis
- Treatment of ocular toxocariasis
- Preventive measures
- Complications and consequences
Video: Toxocariasis - What Is It In Humans: Symptoms And How To Treat
- 1 What is ocular toxocariasis?
- 2 Symptoms of toxocariasis
- 3 Treatment of ocular toxocariasis
- 4 Preventive measures
- 5 Complications and consequences
Toxocariasis is one of the parasitic pathologies that most often occurs in children aged 3-14 years. In this case, the course of the infection can be either blurred or obvious (acute). In any of the cases, helminthic invasion requires treatment, since it entails serious complications. In how exactly ocular toxocariasis manifests itself in humans, and how to properly fight the infection, we understand below.
What is ocular toxocariasis?
Ocular toxocariasis is one of the forms of parasitic infection that develops against the background of the ingestion of the roundworm (nematode) toxocara (Toxocara canis) into the human body. Normally, the biological habitat for the parasite is canine organisms (dogs, wolves, foxes, etc.) and cats. The worm enters the human body “by mistake” through dirty hands, vegetables / fruits or water that is not drinkable. Such cases of infection with toxocariasis are the most frequent.
When they enter the human intestine, the eggs of the worms progress to the state of a larva and then enter the bloodstream through the intestinal mucosa. With the blood flow, the parasite spreads throughout the body, affecting any of the internal organs, including the eyes. In the latter case, the patient develops toxocariasis of the eyes.
Symptoms of toxocariasis
With the development of ocular toxocariasis, the patient's symptoms will vary somewhat depending on the form of the pathology. So, when the organs of vision are damaged by the toxocara worm, the following clinical pictures can form:
Children's preparations for enterobiasis
- Strabismus and partial loss of vision. In this case, the patient may not see only in areas at a certain angle. This form is called chronic endophthalmitis.
- Partial or complete loss of vision in one eye. In this case, the patient has a round granuloma, painted in a yellowish-white color and having a dense structure. Damage to the optic nerve is possible. In this case, we are talking about the development of the patient's granuloma of the posterior pole of the eye.
- Loss of vision in one eye due to retinal detachment. This symptom is typical for the formation of peripheral granulomas.
Ocular toxocariasis also has common signs of pathology. In particular, the patient may experience the following symptoms:
- Inflammation of the vessels of the lining of the eye and their redness (uveitis);
- Inflammation of the cornea of the eye (keratitis);
- Purulent or serous discharge from a parasitized eye
- A feverish state of a recurrent nature.
Treatment of ocular toxocariasis
If the reader wants to understand how toxocariasis is treated and what it is in principle, then it is worth knowing that the pathology is treated primarily with the use of anthelmintic drugs. The most effective and less toxic drugs are today for toxocariasis:
- Vermox (Mebendazole). It actively fights against most nematodes (roundworms). The course of treatment can be from 2 to 4 weeks.
- Mintezol (Thiabendazole). No less effective drug, thanks to which you can defeat toxocara within 5-10 days.
- Ditrazine (Diethylcarbamazine). The medicine is quite effective, but more often than others it provokes side effects.
In addition to taking anthelmintic drugs for toxocariasis of the eyes, consultation and an ophthalmologist are needed. A specialist, against the background of a decrease in the functions of the eye, prescribes certain types of ointments or drops. But on condition of a mild course of the disease. If the pathology is in a severe form, then subconjunctival and / or subtenon injections are not excluded.
To relieve the inflammatory process in the visual organs, the attending infectious disease doctor prescribes drugs from the group of corticosteroids. They also simultaneously neutralize the allergic reaction that occurs against the background of the mass death of the parasite.
What causes a person to have worms?
In order to resist toxocars and understand what it is - prevention of infection, you must first of all be aware of the full responsibility for your health and the health of your or those around you. This primarily concerns dog owners. So, on the part of the patient himself, measures to prevent infection with toxocariasis will be:
- Washing hands with soap after returning home from the street, after using the toilet and before eating;
- Eating only boiled drinking or purified water;
- Eating only thoroughly washed vegetables and fruits.
On the part of pet owners, prevention of toxocariasis in the population should be as follows:
- Regular examination of pets for the presence of parasites;
- Timely or regular antiglyting of pets;
- Walking pets in specially designated areas;
- Cleaning of dog feces with possible toxocar larvae in a disposable bag and in the trash bin after the pet does its business;
- A ban on pet contact with street animals and on eating found feces, etc.
On the part of the state, prevention of toxocariasis is the following:
- A ban on walking pets in parks and other public places;
- Creation of special recreation areas with pets;
- Registration of pets;
- Catching street animals and keeping them competently as a goal of reducing the incidence of toxocar infection among citizens;
- Promotion of compliance with the rules of personal hygiene for all segments of the population and informing citizens about possible ways of infection with toxocariasis.
Complications and consequences
With an advanced stage of ocular toxocariasis, the patient may develop certain complications, depending on the form of the course of the disease. They look like this:
- With chronic endophthalmitis, the patient may develop cataracts, retinal detachment or hypotension. In case of retinal detachment, the prognosis for the patient is not always favorable, even during surgery.
- With a granuloma of the posterior pole, the patient may have folds on the retina, which leads to loss of vision. Exudate will accumulate around the granuloma.
- If a patient has a peripheral granuloma, then the patient will have strabismus with loss of vision in the area of the affected eye.
In general, it is not worth joking with vision, since the Toxocara worm in most cases leads to partial blindness. Therefore, if the patient shows even the slightest symptoms of pathology or there is a suspicion of a possible infection, then you should immediately contact your family doctor. Timely diagnosis and treatment will allow you to cure both a mild form of pathology and an advanced one, and thus save your eyesight, getting rid of parasites forever.