Table of contents:
- What parasites live in the gallbladder?
- Symptoms of parasites in the gallbladder and complications
- Diagnosis of parasites in the gallbladder
- Treatment of diseases
- 1 What parasites live in the gallbladder?
2 Symptoms of parasites in the gallbladder and complications
- 2.1 Ascaris
- 2.2 Amebiosis
- 2.3 Schistosomiasis
- 2.4 Giardiasis
- 2.5 Opisthorchiasis (cat fluke)
- 3 Diagnosis of parasites in the gallbladder
- 4 Treatment of diseases
Often patients of a gastroenterologist complain of soreness in the right hypochondrium, problems with digesting food and stool. At the same time, few people understand that the causes of these failures can be not only malnutrition, stress, alcoholism, etc., but also parasites in the gallbladder. In what types of helminths can inhabit the digestive tract, and what are the symptoms of helminthic invasion, we understand the material below.
What parasites live in the gallbladder?
It is a mistake to believe that worms live only in the human intestine. Some types of parasites with blood flow can be localized in different organs. One of them is the gallbladder. Moreover, worms live and multiply in its bile ducts, which forms cholecystitis (worms clog the bile ducts). Such helminthic infestations are treated in a complex and primarily with the use of antibiotics and anthelmintic drugs. But in extreme cases, the pathology goes so far that it is necessary to remove the gallbladder affected by the worms. In particular, such parasites can live in it:
- Ascaris. The parasite, reaching a maximum length of 20-40 cm. Basically lives and reproduces in the intestine, but together with the blood flow, the larvae of the worm can spread to all human organs. And the gallbladder is no exception.
- Amoeba. The simplest, which can live mainly in the intestines. But just like roundworm, it can migrate within the human body, affecting various organs. Often chooses the gallbladder and / or liver as a habitat. The main danger that comes from amoebas is the degeneration of tissue cells of the "occupied" organ. As a result, the patient develops purulent and inflammatory foci, blood clots and abscesses in the affected organ.
- Trematodes. Fluke worms that feed on the blood of their biological host. As a result, the patient becomes anemic. Trematodes in most cases choose the liver for life and reproduction.
- Schistosoma. A parasite that is most often introduced into the human body in water bodies. In most cases, they bring it from Africa after long travels and swimming in local waters. The clinical picture of schistosomiasis occurs in two stages - acute and chronic.
- Giardia. Protozoa that are introduced into the gallbladder and into the patient's liver from the duodenum. With inadequate treatment, giardiasis leads to degeneration of the cells of the affected organ, to its organic and functional changes. As a result, cholangitis, cholecystitis, hepatitis, etc. can develop.
- Cat fluke. It provokes a helminthic invasion called opisthorchiasis. Basically, infection occurs when eating freshwater fish that has undergone poor heat treatment. Localization of these helminths in the gallbladder occurs in two phases - acute and then chronic.
Symptoms of parasites in the gallbladder and complications
With various helminthic invasions of the gallbladder, clinical pictures are noted corresponding to a certain type of parasite localized in the bile and in the liver. So, the symptoms are as follows.
In this case, the patient will experience:
- Fever and chills;
- A pneumonia-type cough with shortness of breath (especially at night);
- Allergic skin rashes;
- Enlargement of the spleen and / or liver, which can be felt on palpation;
- Weakness and low hemoglobin levels on laboratory blood tests.
When the gallbladder is damaged by an amoeba, the patient has the following symptoms:
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- Prolonged increase in body temperature up to 38 degrees;
- Critical weight loss;
- Soreness in the right hypochondrium;
- In a laboratory study of blood, an increased concentration of leukocytes.
When such parasites are localized in the gallbladder, the symptoms will be as follows:
- The acute phase is an increase in body temperature and a rash on the skin;
- Chronic phase - diarrhea or simply loose stools with bloody discharge and mucus, gastrointestinal upset.
If the gallbladder is damaged by lamblia, the patient will feel persistent soreness in the right hypochondrium.
Opisthorchiasis (cat fluke)
When this parasite is localized in the gallbladder, the patient will have the following clinical picture:
- Aches and chills along with a rise in body temperature;
- Rash on the skin;
- Yellowness of the skin and sclera of the eyes;
- Enlargement of the spleen and liver;
- Blockage of the bile ducts.
The consequences of such helminthic invasions can be more serious disruption of the digestive tract. In particular, the following failures are noted:
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- Inflammatory process in the pancreas;
- Decrease in the level of acidity of gastric juice and, as a consequence, deterioration of the secretory-motor function of the stomach;
- Purulent cholangitis (purulent processes in the bile ducts).
Against the background of all this, the patient feels heaviness in the stomach and liver, nausea and soreness. In addition to everything, parasites poison the human body with the products of their vital activity, which leads to severe intoxication. But the worst of the consequences of a helminthic invasion of this nature is the formation of stones in the gallbladder. This pathology requires the removal of the diseased organ.
Diagnosis of parasites in the gallbladder
Until recently, the only method for identifying parasites in the human body was the study of feces for eggs of worms. However, this method is only 20% informative, since the feces could have been collected during the period when the biliary worms do not lay eggs. In this case, the feces for analysis are taken several times with a break of 10-12 days. Today, it is possible to diagnose parasites in the gallbladder using one or more modern methods. These are:
- Immunoassay blood test. In this case, the patient's blood is taken from a vein and combined with antigens (provocative cells), which, in case of a positive reaction, will react with immunoglobulins (protective cells of the human body). The method does not detect parasites, but only confirms or refutes the diagnosis suggested by the attending physician.
- Duodenal intubation. Allows using a probe inserted into the patient's body to take samples of pancreatic juice, analysis of bile of parasites and gastric juice, and identify the presence of parasites in the digestive tract. The diagnostic method is extremely unpleasant, but at the same time very informative.
- X-ray examination. Allows using a snapshot to track the state of the patient's gallbladder and liver.
- Bioresonance diagnostics. Here the presence of parasites is determined by the electromagnetic oscillations that they create in the human body. For diagnostics, vegetative resonance testing is used.
- Ultrasound examination of the digestive tract. Allows you to identify areas of increased echogenicity, which indicates pathologies in the gallbladder.
In addition to the above diagnostic methods, the attending physician must take into account the conditions in which the patient has been recently (rest, work, day regimen). All chronic diseases in the history are also taken into account.
Treatment of diseases
The earlier the treatment for parasites is started, the more chances of salvation of the gallbladder are. In this case, the therapeutic tactics looks like this:
- Diet therapy. All simple carbohydrates and sugars, as well as meat, are excluded from the patient's diet. They are the favorable environment and food for the growth and reproduction of worms. More plant and simple foods are introduced into the diet. Thus, it is possible to reduce the vital activity and reproduction of helminths and protozoa.
- Suppression of parasites with antibacterial and antiparasitic drugs. The most commonly prescribed nitroimidazole.
- Removal of toxins and waste products of worms. For this, enterosorbent preparations, probiotics and enzymatic drugs are prescribed.
- Restoration of the body's defenses. For this, a spa treatment is prescribed, taking vitamin complexes and choleretic drugs.
Timely treatment tactics and correctly selected drugs allow achieving a lasting positive effect. It is always important to remember that it is easier to prevent a disease than to cure it later. And for this, it is advisable to observe basic rules of personal hygiene.