Table of contents:
Video: What Is Enterobiasis And What Does It Look Like: Infection With Pinworm Eggs
- 1 What is enterobiasis?
- 2 Life cycle of pinworms
- 3 Structure of pinworms
- 4 Symptoms of infection
The disease provoked by pinworms is called enterobiasis. This parasitic disease is characterized by intestinal damage, general allergization of the body and itching in the region of the posterior opening. The life cycle of the pinworm is not related to climatic conditions; this explains the widespread occurrence of enterobiasis in all latitudes. In our article, we will not only tell you what enterobiasis is, but also list the features of the parasite (what pinworms look like), and also describe the life cycle of these helminths and the symptoms of the disease.
What is enterobiasis?
First, let's figure out what it is, enterobiasis. The causative agent of enterobiasis is a nematode - enterobiasis vermicularis. In other words, the ailment is provoked by pinworms, how these parasites look can be understood from the photo on the network. It is a white, fusiform, small worm. Pinworm eggs are distinguished by an oblong asymmetric shape. They are very small and covered with a double-circuit thinnest colorless shell.
Now it's time to find out where the pinworms live. Sexually mature individuals are localized in the lower part of the small intestine, as well as in the upper part of the large intestine and the cecum. In humans, only females parasitize in the body, males after mating are removed with feces. The food for the worms is the contents of the intestine, that is, they act as facultative hematophages.
Infection with enterobiasis is most often possible by swallowing pinworm eggs. They contain mobile pinworm larvae. The share of enterobiasis among other helminthiasis accounts for about 70-96% of cases. Children are especially likely to be infected in schools and kindergartens. Infection with enterobiasis (pinworms) is most often possible in conditions of inadequate sanitary condition of dwellings and public institutions, as well as in case of non-observance of the rules of individual hygiene.
Infection with enterobiasis occurs from an infected person. It is pinworm eggs that, when swallowed, cause disease. This ailment is also called the disease of unwashed hands, since pinworm eggs are transmitted with unwashed hands. If an infection with pinworms occurs, then in the anus, the patient feels severe itching. His hands get dirty when scratching the back opening area. Together with dirty hands, eggs fall on the patient's body, his clothes, bedding. After shaking clothes and linen, pinworm eggs, along with dust, settle on furniture, floor, household items. At the same time, favorable conditions are created for reinvasion of the patient (chronic enterobiasis) and infection of others. That is why it is so important to know how long pinworm eggs live outside of humans.
The duration of the existence of pinworms in the external environment depends on humidity and temperature. So, pinworm eggs can survive for up to three weeks at 70 percent humidity and a temperature of 18-20 degrees. They die quickly when dried and exposed to sunlight.
Children's preparations for enterobiasis
Pinworm life cycle
As a rule, the life cycle of a pinworm begins with the entry of helminth eggs into the human body:
- Under the influence of digestive enzymes, the larva is freed from the shells of the egg and descends into the lower intestines, where it undergoes three molts.
- It is in this place that the developmental cycle of the pinworm reaches the stage of sexually mature individuals. Moreover, after mating, the males immediately leave the intestines.
- The next stage of development begins, at which females attach to the intestinal walls by means of head vesicles and the suction effect of the esophagus. Inside the fertilized female, up to 17 thousand eggs mature.
- Due to the stretching of the uterus, the esophagus is compressed and the suction force of the parasite decreases. As a result, it sinks down the intestines under the influence of its peristalsis.
- At this stage, the phase of active migration of the parasite in the rectal region begins. At this time, the eggs mature to the larval stage. Moreover, the helminth larva has a tadpole-like structure.
- Being in the ass, the female overcomes the sphincter and crawls out in the area of the perianal folds, on the skin near the anus and perineum. Oxygen exposure relaxes the muscles of the vagina, resulting in the laying of eggs. They mature to an invasive state on the host's body.
- If pinworms live in the human body, the life cycle of the parasite is consistent with the human cycle. That is, crawling out of the female and laying eggs usually occurs at night, when the sphincter muscles are slightly relaxed. With significant moisture and contamination of the anus, the process of laying eggs is deposited, and the parasites continue to wander. Sometimes they crawl into the vagina, and from there they penetrate into the uterus and through the fallopian tubes enter the pelvic area. Here they can be found in an encapsulated state.
- After laying eggs, the life of the female ends. It dries up and turns into a lump.
What the parasite looks like, and where pinworms live in the human body, we figured out, now we will study the structure of pinworms. Males grow up to 5 mm in length, and females can reach 12 mm. The tail end of the female is somewhat pointed, and the tail of the male has a blunt crocheted tail. The head vesicles of the parasite are formed from the sharp keels passing along the sides.
The digestive system of the worm consists of an oral opening with three pairs of lips, a cylindrical esophagus that has a bulbous expansion. His esophagus is further transformed into intestines, which ends with an anal outlet at the end of the body. The suction apparatus of the helminth is formed by the bulb of the esophagus and vesicles. Thanks to him, parasites are fixed on the intestinal walls.
The female reproductive system consists of the uterus, which passes into the vagina, ending in the vulva. There is a special muscle in the vagina, which, in an environment without oxygen, is always in a spasmodic state. That is why females do not lay eggs in the intestinal lumen. As for the reproductive system of males, it consists of a testis that turns into a long spicule.
What causes a person to have worms?
If a man has pinworms, what is it, we went broke. It is equally important to know how the symptoms of the disease manifest. The clinical manifestations of this ailment are varied and are associated with the intensity of the invasion, the individual reaction of the body and the frequency of re-invasion.
During the disease, acute and chronic phases are distinguished. In the case of primary infection, the incubation period is two days, and the acute phase lasts up to a week. The duration of the chronic phase is the period of female excretion. It lasts from 35 to 75 days.
The main symptom of the acute phase is abdominal pain. Also, the patient is worried about discomfort in the intestines in the morning, nausea and frequent stools (feces made up, up to 4 times a day). Such phenomena persist throughout the week. In this case, frequent stools are constantly present.
The chronic phase is characterized by the following symptoms, which largely depend on the intensity of invasion, the frequency of reinvasion:
- In some patients, this stage proceeds without clinical symptoms and complaints from the patient.
- With a weak invasion, the patient is worried about itching in the anus, which often occurs in the evenings before bedtime or after falling asleep. Sometimes there is abdominal pain. Such symptoms disappear in a couple of days and are repeated every month (after 21-28 days). This frequency is associated with the development of a new generation of parasites due to reinvasion.
- Intense and prolonged infections occur with perianal itching, which worries the patient not only at night, but also during the day. The patient feels pain in the abdomen, as with appendicitis. He has frequent loose stools, flatulence, tenesmus. Against this background, human sleep suffers. In the KLA, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, increasing in the initial phase and decreasing by the end of the developmental period of individuals of one generation.
With a strong invasion, the patient is worried about the following neurological symptoms:
- persistent headache;
- memory may deteriorate;
- tearfulness and moodiness in children;
- poor school performance;
- fast fatiguability;
- in adults, the ability to work suffers.
Complications of enterobiasis are appendicitis, paraproctitis and proctitis, appendicopathy, skin eczema, various dermatitis. In girls, the disease can contribute to the occurrence of vulvovaginitis and vulvitis.
The prognosis of the disease is favorable in the absence of complications and timely treatment. The difficulty of diagnosis lies in the fact that patients turn to doctors of the wrong specialties (obstetricians-gynecologists, gastroenterologists, allergists, neuropathologists, urologists, dermatologists and even surgeons). Although a parasitologist can identify pathology and effectively treat it. That is why the correct orientation of any specialist is so important, who, when providing qualified assistance, must first of all exclude the likelihood of enterobiotic invasion.