The Simplest Parasites In The Human Body And Their Types In The Body

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The Simplest Parasites In The Human Body And Their Types In The Body
The Simplest Parasites In The Human Body And Their Types In The Body

Video: The Simplest Parasites In The Human Body And Their Types In The Body

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Microbiology of Parasites 2023, February
Anonim
  • 1 Varieties of parasites
  • 2 Diseases they cause
  • 3 Symptoms

    • 3.1 Ascariasis
    • 3.2 Teniarinhoz
    • 3.3 Enterobiasis
    • 3.4 Toxocariasis
    • 3.5 Necatorosis (hookworm disease)
    • 3.6 Giardiasis
    • 3.7 Amoebiasis
    • 3.8 Diphyllobothriasis
    • 3.9 Teniosis
    • 3.10 Echinococcosis

Scientists suggest that about 2/3 of the world's population is affected by this or that parasitic disease. Among the various parasites in the human body, there are the most dangerous ones, which not only cause discomfort to the patient, but can also provoke the appearance of dangerous complications, up to and including death. In our article we will tell you everything about parasites, that is, we will describe the most terrible parasites and list the symptoms of the most dangerous helminthiasis.

Varieties of parasites

varieties of parasites
varieties of parasites

There are different types of worms and protozoa that live in the human body:

  1. Helminths. These worms most often live in the intestines, but it is possible that they settle in the liver, brain, lungs, heart, kidneys, muscles and other organs. Worms provoke dangerous diseases and complications.
  2. Parasitic protozoa and multicellular (protozoal parasites). These pests are common in different latitudes. These protozoan human parasites can infect the intestines, eyes, brain, esophagus, heart, muscles, as well as nerves, liver, skin, and even the genitourinary system. The most common protozoan parasites living in humans are lichens, lamblia, toxoplasma, Trichomonas, blastocysts, etc.
  3. Other organisms that are also parasites for humans are lice, bed bugs, ticks, fly larvae. Their name is ectoparasites. They can parasitize not only on the surface of the skin, but also in wounds, hair follicles and on eyelashes.
  4. Other parasites are species that most commonly infect the subcutaneous tissue, but can parasitize in the urethra and nasopharynx. These are the larvae of some flies, mosquitoes, sand fleas.

We have listed the main types of parasites in humans. But if we talk about what types of parasites live in the human body in our latitudes, then the most terrible of them are as follows:

  • pork tapeworm;
  • wide tape;
  • pinworms;
  • Chinese fluke;
  • roundworm;
  • fluke;
  • trichinella;
  • alveococcus;
  • whipworm;
  • dwarf tapeworm;
  • bovine tapeworm;
  • hepatic fluke;
  • pulmonary fluke;
  • echinococcus.

The diseases they cause

diseases of the digestive tract
diseases of the digestive tract

The most dangerous parasites living in the human body can provoke a variety of diseases. Very often, an ailment provoked by a particular parasite has the same name as it does. So, various types of parasites in the human body can cause the following diseases:

  • certain parasites inside a person (flukes) provoke trematodes;
  • cestodoses occur when tapeworms are affected;
  • if an adult or a child has roundworms in the intestines, then nematodes are diagnosed;
  • leeches cause hirudinosis;
  • anthocephalosis provoke scratches.

However, parasites in the human body can infect more than one organ. Depending on the localization of parasites in the human body, the following parasitic diseases are distinguished:

  1. With eye damage, onchocerciasis, demodicosis, cysticercosis and myiasis can occur;
  2. Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, which cause unicellular parasites and helminths - ascariasis, trichinosis, ankylostomiasis, enterobiasis, intestinal myiasis and metagonimiasis;
  3. Brain diseases - echinococcosis, toxoplasmosis, alveococcosis and cysticercosis;
  4. Dermatological diseases - demodicosis, lice, scabies, pulicosis, thrombidiasis, phthiriasis;
  5. Lung pathologies - echinococcosis, ascariasis, acariasis, alveococcosis, tominxosis, etc.;
  6. Liver diseases - opisthorchiasis, alveococcosis, echinococcosis, clonorchiasis;
  7. In the mouth, in the ears and in the mouth, parasites can cause different types of myiasis;
  8. Heart pathologies - dirofilariasis and echinococcosis;
  9. Diseases of the genitourinary system - alveococcosis, urate myiasis, echinococcosis;
  10. Vascular pathologies - filariasis and schistosomiasis.

Symptoms

lack of appetite
lack of appetite

What are the parasites in the human body, we have considered. Now let's look at the main symptoms that are caused by the simplest human parasites and various types of worms. It is worth noting that cysts of pathogenic worms and protozoa often become the cause of infection, which can stay in the external environment for a long time, waiting for the right moment. When it enters the favorable conditions of the internal environment of a person, larvae emerge from the cysts, which actively develop to adults.

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Separately, it is worth explaining what cysts are. Most often, cysts form the simplest unicellular organisms, bacteria and protists. Protozoa cysts are a temporary form of an organism's existence in adverse conditions. In fact, it is a protective shell. Cyst formation occurs at a certain stage in the life cycle of the parasite or under adverse conditions.

Ascariasis

itchy allergic rashes
itchy allergic rashes

The disease is provoked by roundworms. These parasites can live exclusively in the human intestine. The complex of symptoms depends on the intensity of the invasion and the age of the patient. Common signs of the disease are:

  • itchy allergic rashes (like a vesicular or urticarial rash);
  • feverish condition;
  • general malaise;
  • excessive sweating;
  • weakness;
  • enlarged liver;
  • in the migratory stage: shortness of breath, cough, wheezing in the lungs;
  • loss of appetite;
  • diarrhea and constipation;
  • nausea;
  • from the side of the central nervous system: irritability, impairment of sleep and memory, convulsions, meningitis;
  • liver abscess, obstructive jaundice, appendicitis, pancreatitis and obstruction can develop with massive invasion.

Teniarinhoz

gagging
gagging

This disease is caused by bovine tapeworm. At the initial stage, the disease is asymptomatic and can last for years. Sooner or later, the following symptoms appear:

  • heaviness in the epigastrium;
  • nausea, heartburn;
  • increased salivation;
  • vomiting;
  • appendicitis, intestinal obstruction, blockage of the bile ducts;
  • weight loss against the background of increased appetite;
  • avitaminosis;
  • allergic reactions;
  • dizziness, weakness, sleep disturbance, increased nervousness and irritability;
  • arterial hypertension and tachycardia.

Enterobiasis

This disease is caused by pinworms. This is the most common parasitic disease. Its symptoms are as follows:

  • itching in the anus that gets worse at night;
  • scratching and redness in this area;
  • sleep suffers, bruxism, drowsiness, lethargy appear;
  • loss of appetite;
  • abdominal pain, urinary incontinence in children;
  • unstable stools, nausea, flatulence, vomiting;
  • allergic reactions.

Toxocariasis

dry cough
dry cough

Toxocara worms can parasitize in various tissues and organs of a person. But regardless of the place of localization, they always cause allergic reactions in the body, proceeding according to the following type:

  1. A skin rash that resembles a mosquito bite. The rash can appear on various parts of the body.
  2. Bronchial asthma, manifested as a dry persistent cough with a small amount of sputum.
  3. Quincke's edema. A person has swelling of the skin on the face and neck, which can lead to suffocation and death.

With an exacerbation of toxocariasis, the patient's temperature rises, symptoms of intoxication occur with loss of appetite and headaches, and lymph nodes increase.

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The structure of human lice: types and symptoms of infection

Necatorosis (hookworm)

This ailment is caused by helminths called nekator and hookworm. The invasion is manifested by such a complex of symptoms:

  1. When the larvae are introduced through the skin, dermatitis, urticaria, and various rashes appear. At the site of penetration, swelling, itching and burning occur. The invasive period lasts up to 12 days.
  2. The migratory stage is also accompanied by allergic manifestations. In this case, the respiratory tract is injured, and bronchitis, pneumonia, tracheitis and laryngitis occur. The patient has a fever, cough, shortness of breath and a hoarse voice.
  3. After a couple of months, the intestinal stage of the disease begins. At this stage, symptoms of iron deficiency anemia and duodenitis are present. The patient has increased irritability, fatigue and sleep disturbance. The females have menstrual irregularities.

Giardiasis

pain in the right hypochondrium
pain in the right hypochondrium

This parasitic protozoal disease is caused by lamblia. A quarter of the population has an asymptomatic carriage of this microorganism. In the acute stage, the following signs appear:

  • malfunctions of the digestive tract;
  • the patient is tormented by pain in the right hypochondrium and the area around the navel;
  • flatulence, decreased appetite, belching, nausea is observed;
  • diarrhea alternates with constipation, there may be frequent (up to 5 times) foamy stools;
  • with a subacute course, intestinal symptoms persist, the patient loses weight;
  • with massive invasion, intoxication and fever;
  • children experience itching, urticaria, and fainting;
  • during coprogramme cysts of protozoa are found in feces.

Amebiasis

The disease is provoked by a histological amoeba. The disease can be asymptomatic or symptomatic. There are two forms of the disease: extraintestinal and intestinal. These protozoa can affect the brain, lungs, skin, and the genitourinary system. But the most common is intestinal amebiasis. Its symptoms are as follows:

  • at the beginning of the disease, diarrhea appears with profuse foamy stools, then jelly-like feces, like raspberry jelly, come out. Their frequency is up to 20 times a day;
  • severe pain is localized on the right side of the abdomen;
  • slight subfebrile condition;
  • after 6 weeks, the acute process may decline;
  • on examination, protozoa can be found in the feces.

Diphyllobothriasis

cramping abdominal pain
cramping abdominal pain

The culprit of this disease is a broad tapeworm. This representative of cestodes causes the following clinical picture of the disease:

  • weight loss, unstable stools, decreased appetite;
  • low temperature;
  • fast fatiguability;
  • cramping abdominal pain;
  • anemia, weakness, dizziness, increased heart rate;
  • fragments of the worm can be found in the feces;
  • painful cracks appear in the mouth;
  • depression and increased irritability.

Teniosis

The disease is caused by pork tapeworm. The parasite is localized in the small intestine and causes the following symptoms:

  • constipation, vomiting, diarrhea, nausea;
  • vomit and feces may contain segments (proglottids) of the parasite;
  • anal itching, abdominal pain;
  • sleep suffers, dizziness appears.

Echinococcosis

Echinococcus may not give symptoms of the disease for a long time. Then pains appear in the area of ​​formation of an echinococcal cyst. Usually, the symptoms are characteristic of neoplasms of a particular organ. When the cyst ruptures, general intoxication, anaphylactic shock, urticaria appear.

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