Table of contents:
- When are tests prescribed and where to take them?
- How to prepare for your tests?
- Types of tests for adults for parasites
- Decoding the results
Video: A Blood Test For Helminths And How To Pass A Stool Test
- 1 When are tests prescribed and where to take them?
- 2 How to prepare for tests?
- 3 Types of tests for adults for parasites
- 4 Interpretation of results
Worm infestation is a disease caused by parasites. Statistics say that worms are present in the body of every second person, some live with them for years, unaware of the unpleasant "neighborhood". To detect a parasitic disease, it is necessary to do an analysis for helminths. Diagnostics is carried out in different ways. Some methods only establish the presence of parasites, while others determine the number of these, and also identify the type of pathogenic microorganism. Consider how to properly donate feces for helminths and where to do it.
When are tests prescribed and where to take them?
In most clinical pictures, parasite infestation occurs while eating, through dirty hands. Worm eggs can be transmitted through household items, bedding. The presence of pets in the home is another factor that leads to parasitic infection.
Examination for helminthiasis is of the following types:
- Preventive analysis of feces for helminths. The attending physician prescribes a study for the presence of parasites in the human body, even if there are no complaints of alarming symptoms. The manipulation is carried out within the framework of the clinical examination, as well as on the patient's own initiative. Recommended to be carried out at least once a year;
- Barrier examination for helminthiasis. This option is necessary in those pictures when it is necessary to prevent the spread of the disease among certain groups of the collective. For example, if a person wants to enroll in a pool, or a child goes to kindergarten, school, etc. When visiting such places, a certificate is required indicating that the person is not sick. Most often, feces are analyzed for eggs, worms and protozoa. Blood is an additional study, with a questionable result of laboratory diagnostics.
If a patient comes to a medical facility with symptoms such as weight loss, itching in the anus, loss of appetite, pain in the abdomen, chronic fatigue, the doctor may recommend an analysis for helminths.
In the latter case, the study is carried out more thoroughly. In the vast majority of paintings, several methods are combined - they study the blood and feces of a person.
Where to donate blood or feces? If you suspect a parasitic disease, you can contact your doctor at your clinic. The doctor will give a referral for the tests, after which he will decipher them to the patient. If there is an infection, then medication is prescribed with the use of antiparasitic drugs. You can also go to a private clinic and take all the tests there.
How to prepare for your tests?
The analysis of feces for protozoa and parasite eggs is not a difficult method, but it has a certain error. Therefore, preparation is recommended before passing. First of all, it consists in changing the diet.
The second important nuance, which concerns exactly the delivery of feces, is the patient's menu. A few days before the study, it is necessary to abandon products that lead to irritation of the intestinal mucosa, cause increased gas formation, and have a laxative effect.
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Having considered the analysis of feces for helminths, what it is, we will find out the basic rules of preparation before taking blood.
To accurately determine antibodies to helminths, the following is recommended:
- Blood is donated exclusively on an empty stomach. In the morning, you can not eat food, drink juice, tea or coffee. Only clean water is allowed.
- The last meal is not earlier than eight hours before the intake of body fluid.
- For 10-14 days, the use of medicines is canceled. If for health reasons it is impossible to do this, the doctor is provided with the entire list of medications taken.
- 24 hours before the analysis for helminthiases, physical activity, alcoholic beverages, fatty and high-calorie foods are excluded.
How to get tested for helminths? The biological material is collected independently, before collection it is necessary to empty the bladder in order to exclude the ingress of urine into the feces. Feces for helminths are taken from different areas, the amount for examination is 10-20 g. It is placed in a container and taken to the laboratory.
A blood test for helminths is carried out in the morning; a venous fluid intake is required for diagnosis. If the patient cannot come to the clinic on his own, there is a service in private institutions - calling the laboratory assistant home.
Types of tests for adults for parasites
In modern medical practice, there are various ways to diagnose parasites in the human body. Often, feces are examined for helminths, a parasitic "neighborhood" in the blood is detected, with the help of scraping (with suspicion of enterobiasis in adults).
Worms that live in the human gastrointestinal tract are detected by examining feces. The following types of diagnostics are distinguished:
- Coprogram (meaning general analysis for parasites);
- Scraping (infection with pinworms in adults is detected);
- Examination for worms by means of a thick smear (Kato method);
- Diagnostics by enrichment method;
- Formalin-ether precipitation (this option helps to diagnose any intestinal helminthiasis, detects eggs in feces not only of helminths, but also of protozoa);
- Berman's method (if strongyloidosis is suspected).
One examination is not enough; to obtain a more or less reliable result, feces must be taken 3 times. It often happens that it is possible to detect helminths in the feces only 5 or even 8 times.
The information content of feces for lamblia is reduced to zero, which is due to the life cycle of parasitic individuals - the massive release of eggs is replaced by a period of complete "calm", which varies from several days to 22 days.
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A blood test for antibodies to helminths provides greater reliability. But the final results are also influenced by the life cycle of sexually mature individuals, their number, the intensity of infection, the state of the human immune system.
ELISA for antibodies to helminths (antibodies) detects immunoglobulins that are focused on the destruction of parasitic individuals. However, from the moment of infection, two weeks must pass for antibodies to appear in the blood.
The polymerase chain reaction method allows detecting helminthic invasion at an early stage of infection. Screening blood test by PCR method reveals diseases:
- Diphyllobothriasis, etc.
When confirming a parasitic disease, a medical specialist can recommend additional diagnostic methods - ultrasound, radiography, computed tomography, etc. They are needed in order to determine the degree of damage from parasites. For example, if a patient has opisthorchiasis, then ultrasound shows an expansion of the hepatic and main bile duct, a violation of the contractility of the gallbladder.
Decoding the results
After receiving the form in the laboratory, the attending physician deals with the decoding of the results, and it must be taken into account that each laboratory has its own reference indicators. Normally, an analysis for helminthiasis, in particular, a study of feces, should show a negative result. This means that no eggs, larvae, or sexually mature individuals were found. To exclude a false negative test, the examination is carried out three times at regular intervals.
If the form is marked "positive", it means the presence of parasites in the human body. We are talking about the following varieties - pinworms, roundworms, whipworm, bovine or pork tapeworm, broad tapeworm and some other species. If marked "positive", other tests must be passed. On the basis of 2 or more diagnostic methods, antiparasitic treatment is prescribed. After therapy, tests are again taken to rule out the ineffectiveness of drugs.
The result of scraping for enterobiasis is negative (no infection) and positive (worm eggs are found). The reliability of this method is small, therefore, with 100% certainty about a person's health against the background of a negative result, they do not speak.
Blood for helminths allows you to detect antibodies belonging to the classes IgM, IgG and IgA. They are decoded as follows:
- All three indicators are IgM, IgG and IgA with a minus sign. The result is negative, there is no parasitic disease;
- IgM with a plus, and IgG and IgA can be both with plus and minus. This speaks of the disease in the acute stage;
- If IgG is positive, and IgA and IgM are negative, there is immunity;
- IgG and IgA with a minus or plus, and IgM with a minus - a chronic form of invasion;
- With an exacerbation of chronic pathology, all indicators will be with a plus sign.
When examining for parasitic diseases, the results of all analyzes are evaluated in a complex, only then a diagnosis is made. Upon confirmation of helminthic invasion, appropriate treatment is required, the therapy regimen depends on the intensity of infection, the age of the patient, the type of pathogen, and other nuances.