Table of contents:
- What is hymenolepiasis?
- Epidemiology of hymenolepiasis
- How is the research done?
- Prevention of infection in children and adults
Video: Hymenolepiasis - What Is It And How To Get Tested For The Pool
- 1 What is hymenolepiasis?
- 2 Epidemiology of hymenolepiasis
- 3 How is the research done?
- 4 Prevention of infection in children and adults
The human body is often exposed to the "invasion" of parasites. In medicine, there are more than 200 varieties of helminths that inhabit the human body. Depending on the type of pathogen, a parasitic disease is diagnosed. What is hymenolepiasis? This is a helminthic invasion, in most cases of a chronic course, developing as a result of infection with a dwarf (rat) tapeworm. Pathology is accompanied by a spectrum of nonspecific symptoms, often leads to the development of various complications from the affected organs.
What is hymenolepiasis?
Hymenolepiasis, what is it? Such a parasitic disease, which develops as a result of the reproduction of tapeworms, in particular, is provoked by the tapeworm Hymenolepis, which belongs to a number of Cyclophyllidea parasites.
The human body for worms is the final or intermediate point. At the time of puberty, the helminth develops in the small intestine, and at the stage of larvae it parasitizes directly in the villi.
Then embryos appear from the eggs, which settle in the intestinal villi. They develop within 7-9 days, after they enter the intestinal lumen, are attached to the mucous membrane. After two weeks, they are transformed into sexually mature individuals. The development cycle of parasites is unlimited. The chronic course of the pathological process can lead to the presence of thousands of helminths in the human body.
The development of hymenolepiasis leads to mechanical damage to the intestinal walls, as a result, severe inflammatory processes are observed, pathogenic microflora is activated, enzymatic processes in the intestine are disrupted.
Symptoms of hymenolepiasis do not appear in about 30% of clinical pictures. Often they consist exclusively in general malaise, which does not allow suspecting a parasitic disease in a timely manner. In 70% of cases, trauma to the intestinal walls leads to the development of negative symptoms.
It includes decreased appetite, diarrhea mixed with blood, weight loss, intestinal dysbiosis. Dizziness of varying intensity, causeless irritability associated with toxic effects on the central nervous system, and headaches are often manifested.
Epidemiology of hymenolepiasis
The parasitic disease is widespread. However, it is most often diagnosed in people living in southern climatic zones. These include countries such as Latin America, North Africa, Italy, Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan.
Children's preparations for enterobiasis
Often, pathology occurs in neighboring countries - Central Asia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Armenia, the North Caucasus. In Ukraine, the disease is diagnosed in areas with a hot and dry climate, where there are unfavorable conditions for parasitizing ascaris.
Medical statistics note that hymenolepiasis is diagnosed in most cases in people who live in large cities. Most often these are young children who fall into the age category of 4-14 years. This is due to non-compliance with hygiene rules and an incompletely formed immune system.
Foci of parasitic disease are formed in preschool and school institutions, educational schools, boarding schools, orphanages. Sometimes there are foci in the family, when parasites are diagnosed in all household members.
In the latter case, the foci develop as a result of enterobiasis (pinworm infection). This is due to the fact that the eggs of the rat tapeworm, when scratched in the anal area, fall on the hands, which contributes to the repeated self-infection, infection of the surrounding people.
Source of infection:
- An infected person - in most cases;
- Rats and mice are of secondary importance, since human infection occurs randomly due to ingestion of the larvae of some insects, which are intermediate.
The utmost epidemiological importance is attached to children, as well as to professional groups of people. These include persons working in the food industry, personnel in child care facilities, etc.
The transmission of parasites is oral and fecal. The main factors include household items (doorknobs, dishes, etc.), dirty hands, and food. Helminth eggs are able to enter the human body with dust, water. They are carried onto food products by means of flies.
At room temperature, helminth eggs retain their viability for 24-48 hours, on the fingers of the upper limbs of a person they are alive for 3-4 hours. Favorable environment - constant humidity, liquid can live up to 4 days. At temperatures above 60 degrees, they die in a quarter of an hour. Ultraviolet rays are harmful.
How is the research done?
What causes a person to have worms?
Analysis for hymenolepiasis involves the study of feces in the laboratory or the determination of antibodies in the blood. The check is carried out in private clinics, or you can turn to a district therapist for help, he gives the appropriate direction, tells you how to get tested.
Diagnosis of hymenolepiasis requires some preparation. 3-4 days before the delivery of feces, a certain diet must be observed. It is recommended to give up sweet and sour foods, fatty and spicy foods.
Additionally, a non-specific examination may be recommended, implying a general analysis of the biological fluid, biochemistry, and a physical examination by a doctor. General rules before taking blood:
- You need to donate blood in the morning, you cannot eat, the sampling is carried out on an empty stomach.
- In the morning, you can drink a small amount of water, other drinks are prohibited, including tea, coffee, etc.
- Do not smoke for an hour before donating blood.
- Stop excessive physical activity the day before the study.
The disease is spread from person to person. Therefore, the analysis for hymenolepiasis for the pool is a mandatory procedure. Only the presence of a negative result will allow you to be in a public place with a large crowd of people.
On the form received at the medical facility, there can be two results - negative or positive. Accordingly, a negative fecal analysis for hymenolepiasis indicates the absence of the disease, a positive one, on the contrary, indicates infection. In the latter case, medical treatment is required, including anthelmintic drugs and other doctor's prescriptions. The choice of medication is determined by the number of parasites, clinical manifestations, the age of the patient and other factors.
Prevention of infection in children and adults
The fight against parasitic disease includes a complex of medical and preventive, sanitary and hygienic measures. Treatment-and-prophylactic measures are focused on the establishment and neutralization of the source. They consist of the following:
- Identification of infected personnel and children of preschool institutions, students in grades 0-4 - studies are carried out every 12 months. Catering workers are equated with groups that visit swimming pools;
- Improvement of all those found with the suspension during the period of the therapeutic course from attending preschool institutions; from the work of persons who are employed in public catering enterprises;
- Obligatory dispensary observation.
To break the transmission mechanism of helminths, it is required to carry out sanitary and hygienic measures. They include wet cleaning of the room using specialized antiseptic agents. Disinfection of bed linen, household items, toys, etc., use boiling water.
Hygienic education of young children and their parents is of great importance. They instill basic hygiene skills: wash hands before eating, after using the toilet, weaning from the habit of biting nails, sticking fingers, toys in the mouth.