Antibodies To Toxocars: Total Antibodies And Microbial Code

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Antibodies To Toxocars: Total Antibodies And Microbial Code
Antibodies To Toxocars: Total Antibodies And Microbial Code

Video: Antibodies To Toxocars: Total Antibodies And Microbial Code

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Helminths Toxocara Trichinella 2023, February
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  • 1 The causative agent of toxocariasis
  • 2 Preparation for analysis
  • 3 Blood test for toxocariasis
  • 4 Decoding

It is sometimes very difficult to diagnose various parasitic diseases based on clinical symptoms alone. The most indicative in the diagnostic plan is a serological study. With the help of various laboratory techniques, antibodies to toxocars can be detected in the patient's blood. These are specific immunoglobulins that are produced in response to the parasite's antigens. If such antibodies are detected in the patient's blood, then with almost one hundred percent certainty we can talk about infection and the need for treatment.

The causative agent of toxocariasis

causative agent of toxocariasis
causative agent of toxocariasis

Toxocariasis is a parasitic disease that provokes a helminth - toxocara. This parasite is not characteristic of the human body, but outwardly it is very similar to the roundworm that affects people. This is a nematode from the order Anisakidae and the genus Tohosaga. The larvae of this parasite are very small and reach 0.02 mm in diameter.

Infection is possible with one of two types of toxocara:

  • Tohosara mystax - this parasite belongs to the helminths that live in the organisms of representatives of the order of felines;
  • Tocsocara canis is a worm that infects canids (Arctic foxes, wild and domestic dogs, foxes and wolves).

The presence of parasites in the human body is regarded as an address error, since for the parasite it will be a dead-end branch of development leading to the death of the helminth. Typically, a person is diagnosed with a second type of parasite (Tocsocara canis). Infection in humans occurs from infected domestic dogs.

An infected person is not contagious, since in his body the helminths do not reach the state of sexually mature individuals. This is due to the fact that he is an unusual host of Toxocara.

development of toxocariasis
development of toxocariasis

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The development process of toxocariasis includes the following stages:

  1. When the invasive helminth eggs enter the human intestine, it becomes infected.
  2. In the area of ​​the small intestine, larvae emerge from the eggs. They enter the bloodstream through the intestinal mucosa. With the bloodstream, parasites enter the right atrium and liver.
  3. From the pulmonary artery, the larvae migrate to the pulmonary vein and the left atrium, from where they penetrate with the bloodstream into any tissues and organs.
  4. When the embryos of the parasite enter a place in the vessel where its diameter is less than their size, they leave the bloodstream and settle in this organ. Usually it is the liver, lungs, eyes, kidneys, pancreas, brain, etc.
  5. The viability of the parasite lasts for many years. In the place where the larvae have settled, they remain in a dormant state until the next activation and migration when favorable factors arise.
  6. Over time, some larvae are encapsulated and destroyed. But in general, the parasite can live in the human body for ten years.

To diagnose this ailment, it is necessary to do a blood test for antibodies to toxocars. The referral for this analysis should be issued by your attending specialist, based on clinical symptoms that indirectly indicate the presence of parasites in the body.

Since the worm does not reach sexual maturity in the human body, the eggs of this worm are not found in the feces. That is why a blood test is the only diagnostic technique that allows you to refute or confirm a preliminary diagnosis.

Preparation for analysis

the patient will take venous blood
the patient will take venous blood

For the analysis for antibodies to toxocar, the patient will take venous blood from the cubital vein. To perform the procedure, no special preparation of the patient is required. Blood collection is performed on an outpatient basis in the laboratory of a medical institution. After the blood sampling procedure, the patient is immediately sent home. The results of the study will be known in three days.

So that the analysis for antibodies does not give a false positive or false negative result, before carrying out it, the patient is recommended to adhere to the following rules:

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  1. The procedure is performed on an empty stomach, so the best time for analysis is in the morning.
  2. The day before donating blood, it is better for the patient to refrain from using medicines (especially antibiotics), fatty foods and alcohol. All of these substances are capable of distorting the results of the study.

Blood test for toxocariasis

blood test for toxocariasis
blood test for toxocariasis

Antibodies to toxocar antigens, namely the IgG titer in blood serum, is the most effective method for diagnosing toxocariasis and evaluating the effectiveness of the treatment. The essence of the immunological reaction is to identify immunoglobulins (antibodies) in the human blood, which are produced in response to the parasite's antigens.

Any immunological reactions are based on the fact that all microorganisms are composed of complex organic substances (antigens). When they enter our body, the immune system recognizes them as foreign agents and begins to develop specific antibodies against them. These antibodies gradually build up in the blood. Their concentration is called titer.

If the antibody titer is within the normal range, then there is no infection. If the total indicators are higher than normal, we can talk about confirming the diagnosis and the presence of toxocariasis. The concentration of immunoglobulins in the blood serum is directly related to the severity of the disease, the intensity of infection and the duration of the disease.

Decoding

The decoding of the results is carried out taking into account the following standardized figures:

  • The titer of immunoglobulins is 1 in 800 or higher - the result is positive. In this case, it can be said with almost 100% certainty that the person is sick;
  • A titer in the range from 1 to 200 to 1 to 400 occurs when this parasite is carried, as well as against the background of visceral toxocariasis or eye damage;
  • Values ​​below 1/200 are negative.

If, with a low titer, signs of the disease persist, dispensary observation of the patient is necessary. When he has characteristic clinical symptoms of the disease, a second blood test is performed. A rapid decrease in antibody titer during treatment indicates its effectiveness and the patient's recovery. If the indicators of immunoglobulins decrease very slowly, repeated courses of therapy are required after three months. Sometimes it may take up to five of these repeated courses to fully recover.

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