Table of contents:
- How does the infection take place?
- Types of intestinal parasites in the body
- Symptoms of parasites in the intestines
- Drug therapy
- Folk remedies
- Prevention measures
- 1 How does the infection occur?
- 2 Types of intestinal parasites in the body
- 3 Symptoms of parasites in the intestine
- 4 Drug therapy
- 5 Folk remedies
- 6 Preventive measures
One of the most common troubles for a patient of an infectious disease parasitologist is intestinal worms. A parasitic infection annually kills more than 16 million lives around the planet. Therefore, it is so important to know the enemy by sight and recognize the first warning bells of pathology. It is ideal to observe preventive measures in which intestinal parasites in humans will not start. What are the types of intestinal parasites in humans and what are the symptoms of helminthic invasions, we understand below in the material.
How does the infection take place?
It is important to understand that infection with worms always occurs only through the fecal-oral route. That is, the infection mechanism looks something like this:
- A person or animal infected with worms defecates.
- Feces infected with worm eggs are in the external environment. It is here that pets, garden herbs, vegetables, fruits and people can come into contact with him.
- On hands, the eggs of parasites are transferred to the mouth with food, provided that the hands are not washed properly.
- Or helminth eggs can enter the human stomach with food (poorly washed vegetables, fruits, herbs, uncooked meat or fish).
In addition, worms can enter the human body in the following ways:
- Through insects (fleas, flies, cockroaches), which carry parasite eggs on their paws;
- Swimming in polluted water bodies;
- When walking barefoot on contaminated soil.
Types of intestinal parasites in the body
There are more than a hundred types of helminth infections. However, the most common parasites in the human intestine are no more than 10 species. Below is a list of common worms in Central and Central Europe:
- Pinworms. The most frequent "guest" in the body of children aged 3 to 14 years. The maximum length of the parasite is about 1 cm. The helminth is localized mainly in the small and large intestines. It lays its eggs in the folds of the skin of the anus. In this case, the egg matures within 5 hours after the female laid it. As a result of scratching the anus with itching, repeated infection with a parasitic infection occurs through the hands and later through the mouth.
- Ascaris. The maximum size of the parasite can reach 40 cm. The shape of the worm is spindle-shaped. The helminth is localized mainly in the intestines. But at the same time it is able to migrate through the body with the bloodstream and stop in the lungs, liver, heart and even in the brain. The worm feeds on human blood, which sooner or later leads to persistent anemia. It is noteworthy that roundworm eggs can persist in the soil for up to 3-5 years.
- Giardia. These are protozoa that choose the human intestine, liver or gallbladder as their habitat. The carriers of these parasites in the intestines are cats, dogs and rodents. Insects can also transfer the eggs of protozoa. Giardiasis with poor-quality and untimely treatment can lead to serious intoxication of the human body and damage to the central nervous system.
- Wide ribbon. The maximum size of the parasite can reach 10 meters. And the cycle of his life in the human body is up to 25 years. The main cause of infection is the consumption of fish and its derivatives that have not been sufficiently heat treated.
- Toksokara. It is dangerous because it parasitizes in the human body, without escaping outward. It can live in the stomach, rectum, bronchi and even eyes. The maximum length of toxocara reaches 30 cm. Toxocariasis can cause serious harm to the human body.
- Bovine and pork tapeworm. Such helminths enter the human body with cow or pig meat that has not undergone sufficient heat treatment. The body length of an individual can reach 2-7 meters. In this case, the life cycle of the parasite is up to 20 years. The main danger of tapeworms is that they feed on the resources of the human body. In this case, they may remain undetected for a long time.
- Echinococci and alveococci. This type of helminth also enters the body through dirty hands and mouth. That is, first parasites appear in the human stomach, and then in the intestines.
- Vlasoglav. This parasite provokes a disease called trichocephalosis. Such worms live in the human stomach (photos are presented below) and in the large intestine. If detected and treated late, they lead to appendicitis and anemia.
- Ankylostoma. This worm has a rounded shape and light pink pigment. Its length can be up to 14 mm. The helminth feeds on human blood, sucking about 0.35 ml of blood per day. That is why the main symptom of such helminthic invasion is anemia and anemia.
Symptoms of parasites in the intestines
It is important to understand that the symptoms of parasites in the intestine can be both common to any helminthic invasion, and manifest themselves as signs separately taken for each type of parasite. So, the general symptomatology for a parasitic infection looks like this:
- Soreness in muscles and joints. This is caused by the accumulation of toxins that the helminth releases into the human blood in the course of its life. That is, intoxication occurs.
- Stool disorders. Moreover, there can be both diarrhea and constipation.
- Inflammatory processes in the intestines. They happen due to the violation of the integrity of the intestinal walls by helminths. As a result, all nutrients are absorbed with less effect. The presence of intestinal parasites is evidenced by a symptom - a high rate of fat when carrying out a coprogram (feces analysis).
- Low hemoglobin levels. At the same time, its level is not corrected by iron preparations.
- Allergic rashes. They are a response of the immune system to the introduction of helminthic invasion.
- Weight loss for no apparent reason. It occurs due to a systemic lack of nutrients and substances useful for the human body.
- General tiredness and nervousness. They are the results of intoxication.
- Formation of benign and malignant tumors. Especially in the digestive tract.
There are also a number of characteristic signs of helminthic infections inherent in certain types of parasites in the human body.
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- Intolerable nighttime itching in the anus;
- Mucus in the stool;
- Soreness in the lower abdomen.
- Nocturnal dry cough and shortness of breath;
- Increased body temperature;
- Excessive sweating;
- Soreness in the area of the lungs and heart;
- Nausea and vomiting;
- Yellowing of the skin and sclera of the eyes.
- Decreased appetite;
- Eczema and urticaria;
- Sharp intestinal pain;
- Heart rhythm disorder.
- Constant nausea and dizziness;
- Enlargement of the spleen and / or liver;
- Increased heart rate;
- Numbness of the legs and their paralysis;
- Memory disorders and a sharp decrease in concentration;
- Malfunctions of the vestibular apparatus;
- Pale skin.
- Sleep disorders;
- Periodic attacks of choking;
- Swollen lymph nodes;
- Increased body temperature;
- Lachrymation and purulent inflammation of the eyes;
- Decreased vision;
- Vomiting and nausea;
- Bronchitis-like cough.
Bovine and pork tapeworm (teniarinchiasis and cysticercosis):
- Discomfort in the anus;
- Identification of proglotids under the skin and in the feces;
- Fainting conditions;
- Decreased sensitivity and subsequent paralysis;
- Loss of vision and increased reaction to light;
- The appearance of hallucinations;
- Formation of tumors.
Alveococci and echinococci:
- Red spots all over the body;
- Weight loss;
- Soreness in the chest and in the right hypochondrium;
- Diarrhea and vomiting.
- Weakness and headache;
- Increased salivation;
- Heart pain and shortness of breath;
- Inflammatory processes on the organs of vision;
- Disruptions of the menstrual cycle;
- Sore stomach;
- Belching with an unpleasant aftertaste.
Drugs for the treatment of tapeworms in humans
In order to completely neutralize the worms in the intestines and stomach, it is necessary to choose the correct drug therapy. At the same time, antiparasitic drugs are used against helminths. Of the most potent drugs of the last generation, such tablets and suspensions are isolated:
- Pirantel and Piperazine;
- Levamisole and Praziquantel;
- Naphtamon and Zentel;
- Mebendazole and Difesil.
At the same time, it is better for children from one year to 6 years old to give drugs in suspensions. It is important to understand that all anthelmintic drugs are quite toxic. Therefore, not all of them are acceptable for use during pregnancy, kidney and liver pathologies, as well as during lactation.
If taking medications against worms is impossible for any reason, you can use folk remedies to treat worm infestation. In particular, such agents are used against parasites:
- Ledum and celandine - from lamblia;
- Pumpkin seeds - from pinworms;
- Pomegranate peels - from ascaris.
In addition, you can include in the diet such antiparasitic products:
- Hot black and red peppers;
- Cinnamon and Ginger;
- Cloves and cardamom.
You can drink such herbal decoctions against worms:
As a body-cleansing measure, enemas with garlic or soda are carried out. You can once a year cleanse the body with cognac and castor oil. To do this, they drink 50-100 ml of cognac at night, and after 15 minutes - 50 ml of castor oil heated to 40 degrees. The next morning diarrhea should happen, along with which all the existing parasites will come out.
It is also worth considering that, along with folk remedies or drug treatment, it is very important to create an unfavorable environment for helminths. And for this you need to revise your diet. All sweet and meat, fatty and smoked foods should be excluded from the menu. The diet should contain simple cereals, vegetables, berries and fruits, as well as dairy products, nuts, legumes, strawberries, currants, cream.
In order to avoid possible infection with worms, it is worth adhering to the basic preventive measures. These are:
- Thorough hand washing before eating, after using the toilet, after contact with animals or working in the garden / vegetable garden;
- Regular and timely deworming of pets;
- Limiting contact with street animals and birds;
- Thorough washing of vegetables, fruits and herbs before use;
- Boiling water or using only purified water for food;
- Regular house cleaning and insect control.
Remember, it is always easier to prevent a parasitic disease in the abdomen of an adult and a child than to reap the benefits of helminthic infestation and fight it for a long time. Keep your hands clean and stay healthy!