Opisthorchiasis - How Is Transmitted From Person To Person

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Opisthorchiasis - How Is Transmitted From Person To Person
Opisthorchiasis - How Is Transmitted From Person To Person

Video: Opisthorchiasis - How Is Transmitted From Person To Person

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  • 1 Infection with opisthorchiasis
  • 2 Main symptoms

    • 2.1 In adults
    • 2.2 In children
  • 3 Treatment of opisthorchiasis

One type of parasite, a typical trematode, causes opisthorchiasis, which causes damage to the liver and pancreas tissue. According to the latest data, about 21 million people are carriers of this disease in the world. At the same time, more than 60% of them live in Russia. In the article, we will consider how you can become infected with opisthorchiasis, what symptoms appear and the main methods of treating the disease.

Opisthorchiasis infection

opisthorchiasis infection
opisthorchiasis infection

To understand what opisthorchiasis is, it is important to find out the reason for its appearance. The hepatic fluke or trematode is the causative agent of the disease. The parasite is a type of flatworm and grows up to 15 mm in length. It has an oblong body with a pointed back and front edge. You can protect yourself by understanding whether opisthorchiasis is contagious. Due to the complex cycle of birth and maturation, opisthorchiasis is not transmitted from person to person. In order to understand why such a statement is true, it is important to understand the lifestyle and reproduction of the trematode.

The adult lays special double-shell eggs that can be found in the stool of an infected person or animal. However, even if these eggs enter the body of a healthy organism, then there is no need to fear the appearance of opisthorchiasis.

The development of the parasite begins after the eggs enter fresh water along with waste products. There they are deposited in the soil and absorbed by molluscs. Many people ask the question: what are opisthorchis? This is the next stage in the development of the opisthorchus larva. After a while, transformation occurs and chicarias appear, which fall into the water. Further, they penetrate into the body of a fish, usually a carrier from the cyprinid family, and continue to develop into the next stage - metacecaria.

You can see what the opisthorchis look like in the photo.

what do opisthorchis look like
what do opisthorchis look like

Now you can make out how opisthorchiasis is transmitted. The methods of infection of animals and people are directly related to poorly processed fish. For example, if the product has not undergone sufficient heat treatment or salting. The larvae found in the muscles and under the skin of fish are hazardous to health. In addition to the direct use of river products, you can become infected with the parasite through vegetables. This is possible in situations where the kitchen utensils have not been washed after cutting the fish. But it is impossible to become infected with opisthorchiasis from a sick person.

It is impossible to see if there is an opistor in the product, therefore it is important to know the dishes that are at risk. Research suggests that you can get infected by eating the following delicacies:

  • raw and dried fish;
  • uncooked smoked;
  • "Russian" sushi made from carp;
  • fresh fish steak;

Each of these dishes is dangerous due to the fact that it has not been exposed to prolonged heating and salting. In addition, classical oriental cuisine also falls into the risk group, since it is customary to cook some dishes there for only a few minutes.

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Children's preparations for enterobiasis

There is a possibility of getting the parasite from pets. So, particles of fish with developed metatsikaria can get on the pet's coat, and during grooming, you can become infected from the cat. To prevent a person from getting sick, it is necessary to wash your hands before eating.

The main symptoms

rash on the skin of the face
rash on the skin of the face

The first symptoms of opisthorchiasis appear five or ten days after the pathogen enters the body. Most often, it takes about three weeks for a bright manifestation of the problem. The way opisthorchiasis in humans proceeds largely depends on the number of parasites and the strength of the immune system.

After infection occurs, the disease occurs in two stages:

  1. sharp;
  2. chronic.

The first signs of opisthorchiasis at the initial stage of the disease arise due to the body's reaction to the penetration of parasites. It usually lasts no more than two weeks, but cases of up to 2 months are known. Let's figure out how opisthorchiasis looks like at this stage of development. At first, a strong allergic reaction stands out clearly, the process of the internal organs is disrupted. Further, the symptoms of intoxication in a person weaken. At this stage, the following signs of opisthorchiasis in adults can be distinguished:

  • body temperature rises;
  • a rash appears on the skin of the face, elbows;
  • nausea is accompanied by vomiting;
  • flatulence occurs and stool is disturbed;
  • appetite worsens;
  • the lymph nodes and spleen increase in size;
  • feeling weakness, fatigue, irritability;
  • there is a cough, shortness of breath, difficulty breathing.

In the chronic stage of opisthorchiasis, the most dangerous for humans, the symptoms weaken, and the restructuring of the work of organisms begins. Adult worms stick to the mucous membranes of organs, damaging them. Large accumulations of parasites clog passages and interfere with the flow of natural processes. Because of this, gallstones can appear.

The main symptoms of the chronic course of the disease are as follows:

  • gray face, dry skin, dermatitis, itching;
  • sleep disturbance;
  • an unreasonable rise in temperature to 37.5 ° C;
  • the development of arthritis and arthrosis;
  • losing weight without changing your diet;
  • pain near the heart and abdomen;
  • tremor of the eyelids, fingers and tongue.

In adults

stomach pain appears
stomach pain appears

Symptoms of opisthorchiasis in adults largely depend on the stage at which the disease is. There are three steps in total:

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What causes a person to have worms?

  1. Lightweight. The temperature rises sharply to 38 ° C, there is pain in the abdomen, a characteristic disorder of the stool. The patient feels rapid fatigue, weakness. Usually, this form of the disease lasts no more than 14 days.
  2. Average. The temperature rises another 1 degree, there is pain in the joints, nausea, diarrhea and vomiting. An allergic rash appears on the skin, the liver enlarges. The stage is limited to 21 days.
  3. Heavy. The temperature rises by another 0.5 degrees, Quincke's edema may appear. In this case, perhaps, either strong excitement or apathy. Insomnia

If you do not take the time to treatment in time, complications are possible. Opisthorchiasis in adults can cause other diseases, such as cirrhosis of the liver, hepatitis, cholecystitis, or pneumonia. The ingress of parasites into the body of a pregnant woman can cause the appearance of a premature baby.

In children

allergic reaction
allergic reaction

Trematodes rarely enter the child's body. This usually happens when eating poorly cooked fish. Symptoms and treatment of opisthorchiasis in children are in many ways similar to adults, yet a growing body makes some changes. So, the following symptoms of opisthorchiasis are observed:

  • Severe allergic reaction and itching;
  • due to impaired blood flow, the hands and feet of the child become cold and may have a blue tint;
  • parasites disrupt the work of digestion, so a growing body cannot absorb all the necessary trace elements, which leads to a lag in mental and physical development;
  • rapid weight loss;
  • frequent illnesses due to a malfunction of the immune system.

Opisthorchiasis treatment

refusal of fatty foods
refusal of fatty foods

In medical institutions, before curing opisthorchiasis, a thorough study is carried out, determining the stage of the disease. The whole process of dealing with a problem consists of three main stages. During the first, preparatory, stage, all efforts are aimed at eliminating allergic reactions. The inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and biliary tract is relieved. At this time, it is important to restore the normal outflow of pancreatic juice and bile, improve the work of hepatocytes, relieve intoxication and cleanse the intestines.

Opisthorchiasis in adults has different symptoms and treatment may be associated with the removal of a bacterial infection, then a course of antibiotics is prescribed. It usually lasts no more than five days. When chronic opisthorchiasis is in remission, the preparatory stage lasts no more than two weeks. In cases where the underlying disease is accompanied by pancreatitis, cholangitis or hepatitis, the prolonged first stage of treatment increases by one more week.

After that, you can proceed to the second stage. Depending on how the opisthorchiasis manifests itself, its symptoms, the appropriate treatment is selected. The use of strong broad spectrum antihelmetics such as biltricide is often preferred. Since such medicines have serious side effects, treatment is often carried out in a hospital.

When the parasites have been destroyed and removed, the third stage begins - rehabilitation. It is aimed at restoring the secret and motor functions of internal organs. Additional bowel cleansing with laxatives may be prescribed. At this point, the treatment is supplemented with choleretic, herbal remedies and hepaprotectors.

There are many traditional medicine for opisthorchiasis. However, do not get carried away with self-medication, as errors in treatment can lead to disastrous consequences. Therefore, before taking any action, it is necessary to undergo an analysis for opisthorchiasis by a specialist. The doctor will help determine how to effectively treat opisthorchiasis in adults and children.

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